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Adolescence
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

American high school studentsAdolescence is the period of psychological and social transition between childhood and adulthood (gender-specific, manhood, or womanhood). Someone in Adolescence is called a Teenager. As a transitional stage of human development it represents the period of time during which a juvenile matures into adulthood.
Biological development (that is, puberty) and psychosocial development , however clearer boundaries relate to physical development.
"Adolescence" is a cultural and social phenomenon and therefore its endpoints are not easily tied to physical milestones. The word derives from the Latin verb adoare meaning "to grow up." The time is identified with dramatic changes in the body, along with developments in a person's psychology and academic career. In the onset of adolescence, children usually complete elementary school and enter secondary education, such as middle school or high school. A person between early childhood and the teenage years is sometimes referred to as a pre-teen or tween .
The ages of adolescence vary by culture. The World Health Organization (WHO) defines adolescence as the period of life between 10 and 19 years of age.[1] In contrast, in the United States, adolescence is generally considered to begin around age 12 or 13, and end at 19 or 20.
During this period of life, most children go through the physical stages of puberty which often begins between the ages of nine and thirteen. Most cultures regard people as becoming adults at various ages of the teenage years. For example, Jewish tradition considers males to be adult members of the community at age 13 and females at age 12, and this transition is celebrated in the Bat Mitzvah for girls and the Bar Mitzvah for boys. Young Catholics have the sacrament of confirmation and then are full members of the community. Usually, there is a formal age of majority when adolescents formally become adults. For example, Japan's celebration of this is called seijin shiki (lit. "adult ceremony").

Content
1 Puberty
2 Preteens
3 Teenagers
4 Emerging Adulthood
5 Discrimination against adolescents
6 Psychology of adolescents
7 Social and cultural
8 Legal issues

Puberty
Main article: Puberty
Puberty is the stage of the human lifespan in which a child develops secondary sex characteristics as his or her hormonal balance shifts strongly towards an adult state. This is triggered by the pituitary gland, which secretes a surge of hormones into the blood stream and begins the rapid maturation of the gonads: the girl's ovaries and the boy's testicles. Girls tend to enter puberty approximately a year earlier than boys.
The onset of puberty in girls is also related to body fat percentage. In most Western countries, the average age of menarche fell in a secular trend over the last century, most likely due to improved nutrition and increased caloric intake.

Preteens
The word preteen describes a child a bit younger than a teenager; between the ages of about 9 and 12. The neologism tween has the same meaning, but isn't in general use as either a colloquial or scientific term. This word comes from the age being between that of a child and a teenager, and perhaps it has also been inspired by the first sounds of numeral twelve.
Preteens are increasingly a specifically targeted market segment by business, because they tend to maintain the preferences they develop at this age. Even mobile phones are targeted toward this group.
Pre-pubescence is the age where children begin to have more responsibilities and begin to want more respect as people. Many factors include to this age, such as the desire to have the latest trends in fashion and somewhat music, and to earn small to moderate amounts of money in a way of an allowance or by having a part time job that is centered around household chores. Because of the emergence of greater awareness of social orders and groups, this is a very unstable area of development. Preteens often feel like they're not one thing or another and feel left out. To a girl approaching her teen years, fashion and hygiene (and sometimes the eating disorders that develop as a result of over-concern about these things) come to be a bigger part of her life, and males start to become attractive. Sports and socializing tend to become more important for boys at this age, but some girls do get this feeling too.

Teenagers
Main article: Youth
A teenager or teen is a person whose age is a number ending in "teen" in the English language: that is to say, someone from the age of thirteen to the age of nineteen. The word is of recent origin, only having appeared in the mid 20th century. Equivalent words in other languages may apply to a larger age bracket, including (at least some) preteens; e.g. tiener in Dutch officially from 12, colloquially from 10.
In Western culture, a distinct youth culture has developed. This culture is often distinctly different from the mainstream culture, sometimes in rebellion against it, and thus is often referred to as a subculture or counterculture.
Early Teens: 13-16
Late Teens: 17-19

Emerging Adulthood
Some scholars have theorized a new stage of development, post-adolescence and pre-adulthood. Arnett (2000) calls this stage "emerging adulthood," and argues that it is characterized by "relative independence from social roles and from normative expectations. ... Emerging adulthood is a time of life when many different directions remain possible, when the scope of independent exploration of life's possibilities is greater for most people than it will be at any other period of the life course." (p.469). Arnett, notes, however, that this stage is situationally and culturally constructed (i.e., people in other countries may not experience this as a unique life stage.)

Discrimination against adolescents
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You can help Wikipedia by introducing appropriate citations.The neutrality of this section is disputed.
Please see discussion on the talk page.
It is a popular opinion among adolescents and some adults that people under the age of majority (18 in the United States) are subjected to unjust discrimination. This form of discrimination is increasingly referred to as adultism, a form of ageism, the latter simply being prejudice on the grounds of age, not youth particularly. The underlying notion is that adolescents should be, but often aren't, treated with equal respect as individuals by adults, institutions, and the law on the basis of their humanity, rather than being seen as "second-class citizens," intellectually inferior, or as the property of adults. This discrimination takes many forms, including lack of citizenship rights such as voting and the right to hold political office, as well as cultural, economic, and systemic disenfranchisement. At the same time, most adolescents are treated as adults in negative regards, such as having to pay adult prices for admission to entertainment facilities (theatres, cinemas, amusement parks), for transportation, and for food, as well as often being treated in judicial circumstances as adults where the punishments are more severe. There is also ongoing discrimination against adolescents in the areas of incarceration, education, and military recruitment, particularly minority and low-income youth. These young people face systemic and cultural barriers that often precede their right to due process in the law and equal educational opportunities.
Research has proven that social stratification between age groups causes stereotyping and generalization; for instance, the media-perpetuated myth that all adolescents are equally immature, violent and rebellious. This has led to growing number of youth, academics, researchers, and other adults rallying against adultism and ageism; some have organized education programs, protest statements, and organizations.
Furthermore, persons in positions of authority, a notable example being retailers, are frequently reported to give teenagers substandard treatment and service, based upon these stereotypes as well as adolescents' inability to retaliate through normal legal channels. An example of this is the fact that teenagers are usually paid far lower wages that adults, regardless of their job experience or qualifications. Economically, this doesn't make sense, as teenagers often have the most money to spend, and nevertheless, each adolescent will one day become an adult consumer is his or her own right with the accompanying purchasing power, or perception thereof.
Adolesence is usually an easy target for the media. More often than not, figures and statements portrayed as fact and reality are incorrect and misleading if not downright false and deceptive. Some individuals have taken a stand against this mass-generational slander, such as Mike Males in his article "Media Myths about Teenagers".

Psychology of adolescents
Main article: Adolescent psychology
Maturity in body leads to an interest in sexual activities, sometimes leading to teenage pregnancy. Since some teens may not be emotionally or mentally mature enough to handle sexual activity, or financially able to support children, it is considered problematic in western society.
At this age there is also a greater probability of drug and alcohol use, or mental health disorders such as schizophrenia, eating disorders such as anorexia, and depression. The unstable emotions or lack of emotional intelligence among some adolescents may also lead to youth crime.
Searching for a unique identity is one of the problems that adolescents often face. Teenagers often challenge the authority or the rules as a way to establish their individuality. They crave to be adults, to find their place in the society.
At this age, role models such as sports players, rock stars and movie and television performers are very popular, and adolescents often express a desire to be like their chosen role model. For this reason, people who are considered role models are often heavily criticized for their behavior, because in our time they are, we might say almost without exception, not socially conscious enough for the standard to which most children are held by most parents today. Of course, this doesn't mean that proper upbringing and an inspired life are contradictions; but there rages an argument about how soon one must make room for the other.
G. Stanley Hall denoted this period as one of "Storm and Stress". Conflict at this developmental stage is normal and not unusual. Margaret Mead, on the other hand, attributed adolescent behavior to their culture. Piaget attributed this stage in development with greatly increased cognitive abilities, which can cause conflict as the individual has gained the cognitive ability to reason, dispute, and theorize on an adult level.

The information processing theory, on the other hand, does not see this as a qualitatively different stage, but rather just part of the uniformally gradual slope in gaining more experience. Another equally interesting view is the inventionist view, which states that adolescence is merely a creation of sociohistory. Especially important in this view are the sociohistorical circumstances at the beginning of the twentieth century, a time when legislation was enacted that ensured the dependency of youth and made their move into the economic sphere more manageable.

Positive Psychology is sometimes brought up when addressing adolescent psychology as well. In many groups, one encounters a surprising number of teens who are bored, unmotivated, and pessimistic about their future. A positive psychology styled approach attempts to start up their internal fires, help them develop the complex skills and dispositions necessary to take charge of their lives, to become socially competent, compassionate and psychologically vigorous adults. The article "Positive psychology and adolescent mental health: false promise or true breakthrough?", by Thomas M Kelly, discusses it more.
Scientists have discovered, using Magnetic Resonance Imaging, that teen brains are changing pretty drastically, including "pruning" the gray matter and developing more white matter. This might explain some of the erratic, illogical and emotional behavior thought to be characteristic of teenagers. It also might explain why schizophrenia often does not show up until young adulthood.

Social and cultural
Main article: Youth culture
In commerce, this generation is seen as an important target. Cellular phones, contemporary popular music, movies, television programs, video games and clothes are heavily marketed and often popular amongst adolescents.
In the past (and still in some cultures) there were ceremonies that celebrate adulthood, typically occurring during adolescence. Genpuku (translated as coming of age) in Japan is an instance. Upanayanam is a coming of age ceremony for males in the Hindu world. The bar mitzvah for boys and bat mitzvah for girls are the rites of adulthood in Judaism. African boys also have a coming of age ceremony in which, upon reaching adolescence, the males state a promise to never do anything to shame their families or their village. This was also continued among African-American slaves in the early days of slavery before the practice was outlawed.
Teenagers have also been an important factor in many movements for positive social change around the world. The popular history of adolescents participating in these movements may perhaps start with Joan of Arc, and extend to present times with popular youth activism, student activism, and other efforts to make youth voice heard.

Legal issues
A number of social scientists, including anthropologist Margaret Mead and sociologist Mike Males, have repeatedly noted the contradictory treatment of laws affecting adolescents in the United States. As Males has noted, the US Supreme Court has, "explicitly ruled that policy-makers may impose adult responsibilities and punishments on individual youths as if they were adults at the same time laws and policies abrogate adolescents’ rights en masse as if they were children."
Internationally, those over a certain age (often 18, though this varies) are legally considered responsible adults. Those who are under the age of legal responsibility may be considered too young to be held accountable for criminal action. This is called the defense of infancy.
The issue of youth activism affecting political, social, educational, and moral circumstances is of growing significance around the world. Youth-led organizations around the world have fought for social justice, the youth vote seeking to gain teenagers the right to vote, to secure more youth rights, and demanding better schools through student activism.
Youth are also becoming more involved in community leadership, governance, and service. Volunteerism among youth is at a record high, while student voice in schools and youth voice in communities is being engaged in community organizations, government boards, and in youth-serving nonprofit staffs and leadership.
The sale of selected items such as cigarettes, alcohol, and videos, and video games with sexual or violent content is often prohibited based on age. Such age restrictions vary widely. In practice, it is common that young people engage in underage smoking or drinking, and in some cultures this is tolerated to a certain degree. In the United States, teenagers are usually allowed to drive at 16 (each state sets its own minimum driving age), but they cannot legally purchase or consume alcohol until 21. In Europe it is more common for the driving age to be higher (18, usually) while the drinking age is lower. The traditional age of full maturity in the U.S. is 21 and, until recently (see: Twenty-sixth amendment) people were not legally allowed to vote until this age. At present, citizens may vote at 18 and usually can run in local and state elections at that age (and sometimes do; in rare cases, high school students have run for school board positions, and at least one has been elected mayor). One must be 25, however, to serve in the House of Representatives and 30 to serve in the Senate, or 35 to serve as the President of the United States.
Given the perceived emotional immaturity of adolescents, many countries consider those under a certain age to be too young to engage in sexual intercourse and other sexual activities with adults, even if they are physiologically capable (see age of consent). This issue has been most famously dramatized in the book Lolita (and two movies). Pedophilia is defined as interest in children before puberty, yet informally in the United States and other countries where there is a prevalence of a culture of fear, it may also include interest in adolescents, with their maturing bodies (although the correct term for an interest in post-pubescent adolescents is called Ephebophilia). In some other countries or cultures, typically those in which extended family relationships prevent the quick taking-up and dropping of romantic relationships, relationships between adults and adolescents are socially accepted or viewed with tolerance. See pedophilia and ephebophilia for more information. In many countries, sex with adolescents below a certain age has become a social issue and is considered a serious sex crime. The age of consent varies according to the country or state/region. Countries without such laws may be targets for child sex tourism, if their laws do not separate prostitution from normal relationships.
Pornography involving those under a certain age, typically 18 (see child pornography), is also considered unacceptable and strictly prohibited in most countries. Female adolescents are sometimes forced to engage in prostitution and slavery, even at a young age.
Since the advent of the Convention on the Rights of the Child in 1989, almost every country (except the U.S. and Somalia) in the world has become voluntarily legally committed to advancing an anti-discriminatory stance towards young people of all ages. This is a legally binding document which secures youth participation throughout society while acting against unchecked child labor, child soldiers, child prostitution, and pornography.

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Advice
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Advice (constitutional), in constitutional law, a frequently binding instruction issued to a constitutional office-holder
Advice in aspect-oriented programming, a piece of code executed when a join point is reached
Advice (complexity), in complexity theory, a string with extra information used by Turing machine or other computing device
Pay advice, whereby employees are advised of having received directly deposited pay
other
Legal advice, a formal opinion regarding the law, ce m'est a vis (that appears to me)

Definition
'Advice is an opinion or suggestion that is about what someone should do in a particular situation.

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American Idol
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

American Idol title card
Genre Interactive reality game show
Running time Varies
Creator(s)  Simon Fuller
Developer(s)  Bruce Gowers
Executive producer(s)  Nigel and Simon Lythgoe
Ken Warwick
Starring  Ryan Seacrest
Brian Dunkleman (2002)
Paula Abdul
  Simon Cowell
Randy Jackson
Country of origin  USA
Original network/channel FOX
Original run June 11, 2002 – Present
No. of episodes 25 (season 1)
40 (season 2)
44 (season 3)
43 (season 4)
38 (season 5)
Official website
IMDb profile
TV.com summary
American Idol, formally known as American Idol: The Search for a Superstar, is an American television show. It is a replica of the UK show Pop Idol, a singing talent contest to determine the best "undiscovered" young singer in the country. In recent years it has become one of the most highly publicized music competitions in the world.
American Idol is shown on the Fox Network in the United States which is part of News Corporation. It is created by Simon Fuller (manager of the Spice Girls and S Club 7) and Simon Jones (of Thames Television). The directors are Bruce Gowers (director of Queen's original "Bohemian Rhapsody" video), Nigel and Simon Lythgoe (directors of Survivor) and Ken Warwick (Gladiators and Grudge Match).
American Idol is produced by Fremantle North America which is owned by German Bertelsmann. Each contestant may sign a contract with one of Bertelsmann's many music labels because Bertelsmann owns half of Sony BMG. American Idol is managed by 19 Entertainment which is owned by the international joint venture CKX, Inc.

Contents
1 Background
2 Album sales
3 Finalists' prizes
4 Overview
4.1 Early auditions
4.2 On to Hollywood
4.3 Final Twelve
5 Season synopses
5.1 Season 1
5.2 Season 2
5.3 Season 3
5.4 Season 4
5.5 Season 5
5.6 Season 6 and beyond
6 Idol Ranks
7 Product placement
8 Jaded Journalist
9 American Idol's youngest contestants
10 Controversy
11 Spin-offs produced by same company
12 Imitations produced by other companies
13 Predecessor Shows

Background
The show won a 2005 Nickelodeon Kids' Choice Award for favorite television show. In the same year the show won the #1 spot on Nielsen Ratings for two years in a row, favored over the NBA Playoffs, NHL Stanley Cup Playoffs, Grammy Awards, Academy Awards, and the Olympics. The show's success inspired other nations to produce their own variations and became the subject of numerous parodies.
Album sales
Further information: American Idol Finalists Album Sales
Finalists' prizes
Finalist Prize
Winner American Idol title
Winner and Runner Up 5-album major record deal with Sony BMG, Ford Mustang or Ford Focus
Winner - Final 10 Summer concert tour
Winner - Final 12 A track on the season's compilation album
Overview
Early auditions
American Idol contestant Tessie Mae Reid reacts to Simon Cowell's negative critique during the auditions round in San Francisco.In the show, hosted by Ryan Seacrest, hopeful contestants are screened by preliminary panels to be selected for singing talent or humorous potential and human interest. Those who pass the prelims are potentially aired on the show. They then audition before the three main judges - Simon Cowell (one of the judges from Pop Idol), Paula Abdul, and Randy Jackson - in selected cities across the United States. Sometimes a celebrity fourth judge may be added. These are generally held at large convention centers where thousands of people wait in line for auditions. Past audition cities have included; New York City, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Miami, Atlanta, New Orleans, Chicago, Philadelphia, Greensboro, Washington, D.C., Houston, Honolulu, Denver, Detroit, St. Louis, Boston, Las Vegas, Orlando, Nashville, Memphis, Dallas, Cleveland and Austin. (Contestants from the Season 5 Austin auditions were flown to San Francisco to audition before the judges due to the effect of Hurricane Katrina evacuees on the city.) In order to be eligible, the contestants are not permitted to have any current recording or talent management agreements (but may have had one at some point in the past). Based on turnout and availability, producers select a certain number from the crowd to audition before the three judges (this usually takes 2-4 rounds). Contestants are required to sing a cappella. Those who impress the majority of the judges move on to the second round auditions which take place in Hollywood (typically only several dozen out of the thousands in each city move on). The contestants selected despite lack of singing talent for appearance before the panel provide a major attraction to the viewing audience as they simultaneously proclaim their talent while turning out gut-wrenching performances which are ridiculed by the judges.
American Idol' judge Simon Cowell reacts to a contestant's poor audition.Much like the original Pop Idol version, one of the most popular portions of each season are initial episodes showcasing American Idol hopefuls auditioning before the panel of judges. These early episodes focus mainly on the poorest performances from contestants who often appear oblivious to their lack of star talent. These "contestants" have been selected by the preliminary panels in a negative sense; a typical combination is lack of singing ability combined with vanity regarding their "talent." Others are selected for human interest potential: the 2005 auditions featured a "cannibal" who had sampled human flesh in an anthropology class and an aspiring female prize fighter. Other examples include a man dressed in pajamas with no shoes (whose comments made Cowell explode with laughter) and a transvestite who kisses Cowell on the cheek after his (or her) audition wraps up. Poor singers often face intense and humbling criticism from the judges, and especially from Cowell, who can be harsh and blunt in his rejections. Typically the judges express disgust or dismay or suppressed laughter. Some poor performances have attained notoriety on their own; these have included Season 1's portrayal of Lady Marmalade, Season 2's performance of Madonna's Like a Virgin by Keith Beukelaer and Season 3's rendition of Ricky Martin's She Bangs by William Hung.
Contestants must be U.S. citizens eligible to work full-time and, for the first three seasons, had to be 16 to 24 years of age on October 19 of the year of audition. For the fourth season, the upper age limit was raised to 28 with an earlier cutoff date, August 4, to attract more mature and diverse contestants. In early 2003, a 50-year-old college professor named Drew Cummings filed a complaint with the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission, charging the show with age discrimination because producers denied him an audition due to his age. His case was not taken up by the EEOC. Auditioning contestants must bring with them to auditions a valid proof of age (and citizenship) such as a birth certificate and a driver's license or a birth certificate and a passport, and minors under the age of 18 must be accompanied by a parent or guardian. All auditioning contestants are required to sign on to the Internet at www.americanidol.com and print out a copy of the release form to fill out and turn in at the audition in order to grant permission to be seen and heard by the producers' cameras. Contestants found out to have given false information will be disqualified.
Those who are ineligible are: those who have current talent representation or a recording contract; have made it to a top 30 on Season 1, top 32 on Season 2 and 3, or top 44 on Season 4; or are affiliated with Fox, Fremantle, 19, its sponsors, its subsidies and parent companies. Even if a person is eligible, he or she may not have a chance to audition or be seen because the show can see only a limited number of people in each city.
On to Hollywood
Season 5 runner-up Katharine McPhee, one of 175 contestants to make it to Hollywood, performs before the judges at the Orpheum Theatre in Los Angeles, California.Once in Hollywood, the three judges narrow the initial field of several hundred down to a group of 24 semi-finalists (30 in Season 1 and 32 Seasons 2 and 3) (complete list). In Season 1, the 30 semi-finalists were split into three groups of ten and the top 3 of each group advanced to the final 10. This left 9, so the tenth finalist was chosen in a wild card show in which the five performers that were originally eliminated but the judges felt deserved a second chance performed again, allowing one to still advance to the golden ten. In Seasons 2 and 3, the 32 semi-finalists were split into four groups of eight, who would compete for two slots in the finals. After right were chosen, a wild card round featuring singers who were previously eliminated but whom the judges felt deserved a second chance gave the audience the chance to select one additional contestant through viewer voting, while each judge selected an additional singer to advance to the finals, filling the field of twelve. It is worth noting that the season 2 runner up, Clay Aiken, was the viewers' wild card choice, having originally fallen short to eventual winner Ruben Studdard and third-place finisher Kimberley Locke in the second round of eight. Starting with the fourth season, the semi-finalists were split into male-only and female-only. On three consecutive weeks, the male semifinalists perform only against the other men, and the women only against the other women. Each contestant performs live (in the eastern and central time zones), in primetime, a song of his or her choice, and receives critiques from the judges, who, from this point on, serve almost entirely in an advisory capacity, with little direct influence on the results.
Viewers have two hours following the broadcast of the show in their time zone to phone in votes for their favorite contestant by calling a toll-free number. Viewers with Cingular Wireless cell phones (Cingular is the official cellular service provider for American Idol) may also send text messages to vote. Callers are allowed to vote as many times as they like for any number of contestants, as long as they vote within the voting window for the time zone assigned to their phone's area code. (Cell phone voters who have tried voting while on business/vacation/etc. in other time zones have reported on various fan forums that their votes were rejected if they tried to vote outside the time zone assigned to their cellular number.) On the following night's episode the results of the nationwide vote are announced, and the bottom two vote-getters are eliminated each week. At the end of the semifinal rounds, the six men and six women who remain advance to the finals.
Semi-finalists (and in some cases, other contestants as well) must submit to background checks and may be summarily disqualified for past behavior deemed undesirable, such as an arrest record. Several finalists have been disqualified for revelations that surfaced late in the competition. Semi-finalists are also subjected to drug tests, in order to avoid scandals involving drug usage. Contestants who failed the test have not been allowed to proceed in the competition.
Under terms of the personal release contract, contestants agree to be "conclaved" from the outside world. This ceases contestants from using cell phones (unless between family members or during an emergency), the Internet (especially chatting and message boards), leaving the Hollywood jurisdiction, leaving their apartments without consent, communicating with third-parties, watching TV (especially news and sports), listening to radio stations, and reading newspapers during their duration in the competition.

Final Twelve
Season 5 contestant Chris Daughtry listens as judge Randy Jackson discusses his performance during the final four performance night.In the finals, which last eleven weeks, each finalist performs a song live in prime time from a weekly theme (two songs in later rounds) at CBS Television City in Los Angeles, California in front of a live studio audience. Themes have included Motown, disco, big band music, and Billboard #1 hits. Some themes are based on music recorded by a particular artist, and the finalists have a chance to work with that artist in preparing their performances. Artists around whom themes have been based include Billy Joel, Neil Sedaka, The Bee Gees, Barry Manilow, Gloria Estefan, Elton John, Stevie Wonder, Queen and Elvis Presley.
When there are three finalists remaining, themes are no longer used. Instead, each contestant sings three songs: one of their own choice, one chosen by the judges, and one chosen by record executive Clive Davis. However in Season 2, in the final three, one song was chosen randomly from a bowl, with one chosen by the performer and one by the judges.
In any case, each week on the following night's live "results" episode, the contestant with the fewest votes is sent home. The bottom three vote-getters are separated from the remaining contestants. Over the course of the episode, two are revealed as being "safe" for the week, and the loser is sent home after performing one final song to end the episode. This process is repeated each week until the one remaining contestant is declared the winner. The stage is moved to the Kodak Theatre for the finale showdown, where the two remaining contestants perform for an audience of at least 3,400
Season synopses
Spoiler warning: Plot and/or ending details follow.

Season 1
Kelly Clarkson, the winner of season one.Main article: American Idol (Season 1)
The first season of American Idol debuted without hype as a summer replacement show in June 2002 on the Fox Broadcasting Company after being rejected by numerous other networks. The show's co-hosts were Ryan Seacrest and Brian Dunkleman. Through word of mouth generated by the appeal of its contestants and the presence of acid-tongued British judge Simon Cowell, the show grew into a phenomenon ending with a finale viewed by an estimated fifty million viewers in September 2002. Following such a success, the second season was moved to air the upcoming January during the higher profile 2003 fall schedule. The number of episodes increased, as did the show's budget and the charge for commercial spots.
Winner Kelly Clarkson signed with RCA Records the label in partnership with American Idol's 19 Management. Immediately post-finale, Clarkson released two singles, most notably the coronation song A Moment Like This which debuted at #52, but marked the biggest jump in Billboard history when it shot to #1, breaking a record set by The Beatles. As part of the promotion planned for the show's first winner, the song had been prerecorded ready to air on radio stations the day after the finale. Appearances on numerous entertainment/news shows followed, as did videos for the singles that began airing on MTV's TRL. Clarkson has subsequently had two successful albums, Thankful and Breakaway, and several hit singles mostly from her more successful second album Breakaway. While her first album failed to sell outside of North America, her second was a global success and garnered two Grammy Awards in 2006.
The show inspired a 2003 movie musical, From Justin to Kelly, featuring Kelly Clarkson and runner-up Justin Guarini. The musical love story, produced by American Idol's Simon Fuller, was filmed in Miami, Florida over a period of six weeks shortly after the season ended. Released several months later in June 2003, the film failed to make back its budget [1] during its short run in theatres. A DVD with additional footage was released and the movie airs periodically in the U.S. and other countries.
Season 1 is the only season 19 Management signed contestants other than the top two finishers. Also signed were Nikki McKibbin (3rd), Tamyra Gray (4th), and Christina Christian (6th). It is also the only year the runner-up did not release a single following the show's finale.
Runner-up Justin Guarini also signed with RCA Records. Contract restrictions required him to reject outside offers received and delay solo projects following the season finale, eventually debuting an album in 2003 after the conclusion of Season 2. RCA dropped him shortly after its debut. Guarini formed his own entertainment company and independently released a second album in 2005, with a third album and an independent movie scheduled for release in 2006. Nikki McKibbin signed with RCA, but was dropped when she refused to record a country album. She has since made appearances on various Reality TV shows, and is finishing her debut album. Tamyra Gray was signed to RCA, but was dropped when she demanded to write the album. She then signed with American Idol's Simon Fuller's new label 19 Entertainment, and her self-written debut album was released in 2004. She was dropped by the label in 2005. She had a supporting role in the 2005 movie The Gospel. RJ Helton released a Christian album, but sales were lackluster. Ryan Starr had trouble getting out of her contract with RCA Records, but independently released a single My Religion, which sold 360,000 downloads via iTunes. She is expected to release her debut album in 2006 or 2007. Jim Verraros the first openly gay contestant to appear on American Idol starred in an indie film and released a dance-pop album, charting a dance hit on Billboard. Christina Christian, EJay Day (tenth), and AJ Gil (eighth) have had little success after the show.

Season 2
Ruben Studdard, winner of season two of American Idol."Main article: American Idol (Season 2)
In Season 2, Seacrest surfaced as the lone host, since Dunkleman reportedly hated working on the show, and the studio was dissatisfied with his performance. Kristin Holt was a special correspondent. This time, Ruben Studdard emerged as the winner with Clay Aiken as runner-up. Out of 24 million votes recorded, Studdard finished just 130,000 votes ahead of Aiken, although there remains controversy over the accuracy of the reported results. There was much discussion in the communication industry about the phone system being overloaded, and that more than 150 million votes were dropped, making the voting invalid. [2] Since then the voting methods have been modified to avoid this problem.
In an interview prior to the start of the fifth season, executive producer Nigel Lythgoe revealed for the first time that Aiken had led the fan voting from the wild card week onward until the finale. [3] Despite Studdard's victory, Aiken has enjoyed more widespread popularity, emerging as one of the season's true breakout stars, even being the first to have a U.S. Hot 100 number one with This is The Night. Ruben's next album is rumored to be released in 2006. Kimberley Locke has also enjoyed radio success after American Idol, with her debut album, One Love. Her next album is also rumored to be released in 2006.
Fourth-place finisher and former Marine Josh Gracin has had some success as a country artist, signing with Lyric Street Records, and his first album spawned three hit singles, including a number one song, Nothing to Lose.
One contestant, Frenchie Davis, was disqualified and removed from the competition after topless photos of her surfaced on the internet. She later appeared in the Broadway musical Rent.
During the course of the contest Ruben became known for wearing 205 Flava jerseys representing his area code. Shortly after the end of the contest, Ruben sued 205 Flava, Inc for $2 million for using his image for promotional purposes. Flava responded by alleging that Ruben had accepted over $10,000 in return for wearing 205 shirts, and produced 8 cashed checks to validate their claim. The allegations, if true, indicate a clear violation of the American Idol rules. [4] The lawsuit was settled out of court. [5]
The rumor mills were buzzing once again in 2005 when Season 2 contestant Corey Clark, who was kicked off the show because of a police record he had not disclosed earlier, alleged that he had an affair with judge Paula Abdul. Clark also alleged that Abdul gave him preferential treatment on the show because of their alleged romance. A subsequent investigation by Fox found no evidence to support Clark's charges. [6]

Season 3
Main article: American Idol (Season 3)
Fantasia Barrino, the winner of season three of American Idol.The third season of American Idol premiered on January 19, 2004.
The early part of the season introduced William Hung, a UC Berkeley student, who became popular following his rendition of Ricky Martin's She Bangs. His performance as well as his attitude facing Simon's criticisms (which was a stark contrast to other contestants' confrontational, angry reactions) landed him a record deal with Koch Entertainment Records making over $500,000 in record sales.
During the season, controversy over the legitimacy of the contest increased as rocker Jon Peter Lewis and young crooner John Stevens stayed afloat while others were unexpectedly eliminated. Jasmine Trias, despite some negative comments from Simon Cowell survived elimination and took the third spot over Latoya London. Jasmine later released a CD and attracted fans in her home state of Hawaii and in the Philippines, Singapore, Guam and other South East Asian countries. The third season was also shown in Australia on Network Ten about half a week after episodes were shown in the U.S..
After a nationwide vote of more than 65 million votes in total - more than the first two seasons combined - Fantasia Barrino won the American Idol title and Diana DeGarmo was runner up. Fantasia has enjoyed commercial success and has been labeled by many respected individuals as a future musical legend. Fantasia has also taken part in writing and acting projects. These include her life memoir, Life is Not a Fairy Tale, and an original Lifetime movie about her life story, scheduled for a Summer 2006 release on the cable network. Fantasia was a major contender for the role of Effie White in the 2006 film adaptation of Dreamgirls, but she was turned down in favor of fellow Season 3 contestant Jennifer Hudson [7]. Fantasia also guest starred on an episode of The Simpsons as a younger version of herself named Clarissa Wellington. Her character came in third on the American Idol parody, Li'l Starmaker.
Diana DeGarmo's first CD, Blue Skies, was not a commercial success due to a lack of promotion by RCA and she was eventually dropped from RCA. She has since received a role in the Broadway production of Hairspray. Diana wasn't the only non-winner of the season to land herself a record deal, however. Jasmine Trias signed with an independent label, and although she has failed to achieve commercial success in the mainland USA, she has become a major celebrity in other countries, such as the Philippines. Latoya London signed with Peak Records and released an album of slow jams, which didn't sell well. George Huff signed with Word Records to release a gospel album and has since had mild success in that genre.
John Stevens, the red-haired crooner who many say made it farther than he should have, landed a deal with Maverick Records, but was dropped due to low album sales. Jennifer Hudson is starring alongside Beyoncé Knowles and Jamie Foxx in the upcoming Dreamgirls movie, and is expected to release her album sometime in 2007. Camile Velasco was once signed to Motown Records, but left the label after her first single flopped. Still, like Jasmine, she has become somewhat popular in the Philippines. Eleventh place contestant Matthew Rogers is now a TV personality, starring alongside Mikalah Gordon on Idol Extra, which goes behind the scenes of the current American Idol season.
Ironically, the amusingly unmusical also-ran William Hung became a bigger star than any of the finalists.

Season 4
Carrie Underwood, winner of the fourth season of American Idol.Main article: American Idol (Season 4)
The fourth season of American Idol premiered on January 18, 2005. It was the first season in which the age limit was raised to 28, in order to increase variety. All Season 4 contestants had to be between the ages of 16 and 28 on August 4, 2004, born on or between August 5, 1975 and August 4, 1988.[8] [9] Among those who benefited from this new rule were Constantine Maroulis (born September 17) and Bo Bice (born November 1), considered to be the eldest and somewhat most experienced of the season's Idol contestants. They were also constantly mentioned by Seacrest and in the media as "the two rockers", since their long hair and choice of rock songs made them stand out from conventional Idol standards. The presence of more rock-orientated contestants has continued with Chris Daughtry in Season 5, who was inspired to audition for the show by Bice.
This season also implemented new rules for the final portion of the contest. Instead of competing in semi-final heats in which the top vote-getters are promoted to the final round, 24 semi-finalists were named; 12 men and 12 women, who competed separately, with 2 of each gender being voted off each week until 12 finalists were left.
Mario Vazquez, who was originally one of the top 12, dropped out of the competition on March 11, just days before the top 12's first performance, citing "personal issues", opening a spot in the final 12 for Nikko Smith (son of Baseball Hall of Famer Ozzie Smith), who had been voted off in the semi-finals the previous week.
The winner was Carrie Underwood, a country singer, the first winner since Kelly Clarkson to not only win but avoid being in the bottom three for the entire competition. Bo Bice came in first runner-up. Her first single, Inside Your Heaven, was released on June 14, 2005. The single debuted at #1 on the Billboard Hot 100, with first-week sales of 170,000 copies, and briefly stopped Mariah Carey's run at #1 with We Belong Together. One week later, runner-up, Bo Bice, released his version of the song, which debuted at #2. Underwood's version was shunned by country radio reaching a peak of #59 on the country charts. The B-side was Independence Day, a cover of the Martina McBride hit. Underwood's second single, Jesus, Take The Wheel was made available for radio airplay on October 18, 2005. It received so much airplay that it debuted at #39 on the Billboard Country Chart in its first week, setting a record. As it climbed it finally reached #1 for 6 consecutive weeks, and was only two weeks shy of Connie Smith's record of an 8 week run back in 1964-1965. The single also debuted at #48 on the Billboard Hot 100 where it reached a peak of #20. Underwood's third single, Don't Forget to Remember Me, released for radio in 2006, has peaked at #15 on the Hot Country Charts, as well as, #84 on the Billboard Hot 100.
Meanwhile, Bo Bice's first single, The Real Thing has appeared on American Top 40 radio. Although Bice's sales did not match that of Underwood, he stands as the second-most successful recording artist to not win the American Idol title with RIAA platinum status. Third-place contestant Vonzell Solomon landed a role in a film, Still Green and a single on a Christmas album. Sixth-place contestant Constantine Maroulis has redone his Bohemian Rhapsody rendition for a Queen tribute album, and has announced his pre-production debut album's release in the fall of 2006, as well as to star in an ABC television sitcom and an independent feature film. Seventh-place contestant Anwar Robinson has released his self-titled EP on an independent label. Mario Vazquez and Nikko Smith will each have a new single by the summer of 2006. 12th-place contestant Lindsey Cardinale has recorded her first single, Nothing Like A Dream (B-side Drive) in the summer of 2005 on an independent label, and released in March 2006.

Season 5

Taylor Hicks, the winner of season five of American Idol.Main article: American Idol (Season 5)
The fifth season of American Idol began on January 17, 2006. Auditions were in Austin, Boston, Chicago, Denver and San Francisco, with Greensboro, North Carolina and Las Vegas, Nevada included after the cancellation of the Memphis auditions due to Hurricane Katrina. The season used the same rules as Season 4. Contestants had to be between the ages of 16 and 28 on August 15, 2005, being born on or between August 16, 1976 and August 15, 1989. [10] [11]
Although this season had little controversy in comparison to the four prior seasons, various troubles have emerged. Derrell and Terrell Brittenum were twins who auditioned together in Chicago. Derrell had threatened to, and did quit when he had mistakenly heard his brother was cut. After realizing his error, Derrell pleaded to the judges to let him reclaim his spot in the competition, much to their consternation. They gave Derrell and his brother another chance, but the twins were later disqualified in January 2006 due to a prior arrest in relations to identity theft.
Finalist Bucky Covington also had prior troubles with the law. Coincidentally, Covington's crimes involved himself and his twin brother, Rocky. The two had allegedly switched spots in 1998 to avoid the other getting into troubles with the law, thus confusing the police. However, this prior crime had no effect on Covington's time spent on American Idol, and he was voted off on April 12.
The winner of the season was Taylor Hicks with runner up Katharine McPhee. Taylor Hicks joined Kelly Clarkson and Carrie Underwood as the only winners of American Idol to never be in the bottom three or two. Taylor was named American Idol on May 24, 2006 at 9:56 PM (EDT). Taylor Hicks is the second American Idol winner from the city of Birmingham, Alabama (the first being Ruben Studdard), and the fourth finalist with close ties to the city. The finale was seen by some as the best yet, with surprise performances from stars such as Live, Mary J. Blige, and Toni Braxton singing duets with the members of the final 12. An additional performance by Prince was generally seen as a statement of Idol's acceptance in the music world.
The introduction of the Golden Idol awards brought back memories from the auditions, such as the return of "Crazy Dave" and even the foul-mouthed Rhonetta Johnson, while providing comic relief in the midst of the suspense. For example, Michael Sandecki was an auditioner that closely resembled Season 2 runner-up Clay Aiken at his original audition, but unlike Clay, Michael was not a good enough singer to be accepted to Hollywood. He appeared on the finale to receive a Golden Idol for "Best Impersonation", and was asked to sing. He started to sing Don't Let the Sun Go Down on Me, albeit poorly, and much to his joy and surprise, the real Clay Aiken came out on stage and finished the song with him.

Season 6 and beyond
This article or section contains information about a scheduled future television show or episode(s).
It may contain non-definitive information based on commercials, a website or interviews. The information may still change as the date of broadcast approaches.
Main article: American Idol (Season 6)
The show has since been renewed for five more years, meaning it is expected to air until at least 2011, running for a total of at least ten seasons.

Idol Ranks
Season Winner 2nd 3rd 4th 5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 11th 12th
1 Kelly Justin Nikki Tamyra RJ Christina Ryan A.J. EJay Jim N/A
2 Ruben Clay Kimberley Josh Trenyce Carmen Kimberly Rickey Corey Julia Charles Vanessa
3 Fantasia Diana Jasmine LaToya George John Jennifer Jon Peter Camile Amy Matthew Leah
4 Carrie Bo Vonzell Anthony Scott Constantine Anwar Nadia Nikko Jessica Mikalah Lindsey
5 Taylor Katharine Elliott Chris Paris Kellie Ace Bucky Mandisa Lisa Kevin Melissa

Product placement
American Idol is often noted for advertising its sponsors during the show's runtime. Being the number one rated show in the United States, it costs around $705,000 for a 30-second commercial. Coca-Cola is a major sponsor in the U.S., and all the judges, hosts, and contestants are seen consuming beverages out of cups bearing the Coca-Cola logo, while contestants and host Ryan Seacrest gathering for a Keeping it Real segment between songs in the Coca-Cola Red Room, the show's equivalent to the traditional green room. (During rebroadcast on ITV in the UK, the Coca-Cola logo is obscured in the shots.) After every Wednesday results show, the remaining contestants and host meet in the Coca-Cola Red Room to discuss next week's theme; the footage of this meeting is shown at the start of the following Tuesday's performance show. Voting is made possible by Cingular Wireless, and viewers who cast votes on Cingular Wireless cellular telephones benefit from lower billing costs. Kellogg and Pop-Tarts are also two major sponsors, especially of the cast tour that follows the end of every season. Products from the Ford Motor Company also receive prominent product placement; contestants appear in Ford commercials on the results shows, and the final two of Seasons 4 and 5 each won free Mustangs. In addition, the American Idol logo strongly resembles the Ford Motor Company logo (both are blue ovals featuring cursive script). Contestants will occasionally don Old Navy clothing during performances, and celebrity stylist Steven Cojocaru has appeared in previous seasons to assist contestants with picking out wardrobe pieces from Old Navy. Clairol hair care products also sponsors the show, with contestants usually getting Clairol-guided hair makeovers after the first two or three episodes during the round of 12.

Jaded Journalist
Beginning with the second season of American Idol, the show's website has hosted satirical news coverage by the "Jaded Journalist." The often sardonic Jaded Journalist has written recaps (summaries) of the show, run an email feedback column, and conducted video interviews of finalists in Hollywood as well as interviews of auditioners in other cities.
Some have proposed that the purpose of the Jaded Journalist is to bring edginess and humor to the otherwise saccharine image that American Idol tends to promote for itself. The identity of the Jaded Journalist, whose face was obscured or hidden in videos, was kept relatively secret from the character's inception until 2004, when his identity was revealed to be Michael Krogmann.

American Idol's youngest contestants
The following is a list of contestants under the age of 18 by the time they entered their respectful season's top 12. Note that none of the contestans from seasn 1 were under 18.

Carmen Rasmusen, 17 years.
Leah Labelle, 17 years.
Diana DeGarmo, 17 years.
John Stevens, 17 years. Note that John Stevens is only 6 weeks younger than Diana DeGarmo.
Mikailah Gordon, 16 years.
Paris Bennett, 17 years.
Lisa Tucker, 16 years.
Kevin Covais, 16 years.

Controversy
Main article: American Idol controversy
American Idol has come under fire for maintaining what some claim to be total control of the careers of the winners of the contest. Former co-host Brian Dunkleman referred to the show as "owning" the winning contestants, noting that winners sign contracts to only record with companies owned by the show's producers and to allow related agencies to manage their careers.
Former contestant Corey Clark told reporters in April 2005 that he and Idol judge Paula Abdul had a "secret affair." prompting an internal Idol investigation. [12]
Season 3 winner Fantasia Barrino included a controversial song on her first album titled"Baby Mama about single motherhood that has received widespread criticism. Although the song has been thought of and labeled by Fantasia herself as an inspirational anthem for single mothers everywhere by many, others see the song as an example of poor "family values."
The show is known for encouraging favoritism within the contestants and having viewers vote for their "favorite" rather than singing ability. This treatment of music places social status above musical aesthetics.
Since the 2004 season, American Idol producers have battled services like DialIdol.com, Worldsentiment.com, and VotefortheWorst.com. DialIdol predicts the winner of each week's contest based on how often an automatic dialer encounters a busy signal for each contestant; Worldsentiment uses very large samplings and algorithms to predict the outcome of the vote-off; and VotefortheWorst exhorts viewers to vote for what the site deems to be the worst contestant, rather than the best. Some in the media have implied that Las Vegas odds makers exert behind-the-scenes influence in protecting the services.
Spin-offs produced by same company
Further information: List of American Idol spin-offs

Imitations produced by other companies
This series has been imitated by many other shows, among them Nashville Star on the USA Network. Nashville Star still airs and has had a successful run. In the fall of 2004, VH1 launched a music reality talent-search series In Search of the New Partridge Family, in which aspiring actor-singers competed for the roles of Keith, Laurie, Danny, and Shirley Partridge. A pilot episode was aired in early 2005, but the show didn't get picked up. Rock Star: INXS is a rock competition that premiered on CBS in the summer of 2005.
The WB aired a parody series entitled Superstar USA, in which the worst singers were picked to move on without knowing that it was a search for the worst rather than the best.
American Idle[13] by Dustball is an animated parody of the Numa Numa Dance.
Super Girl hosted by HNTV of China also imitated it.
The Idol series, with Simon Cowell, referenced in Shrek 2; Cowell himself has appeared on The Simpsons. Simon Cowell also appeared in Scary Movie 3 at a rap off.
American Idol was parodied on the children's television show All That in the sketch American Idiot. Kyle Sullivan played an essentially useless host named Brian Peefest. Giovonnie Samuels played the judge Mandy Snackson, whose frequent catch phrase was "You did your thing, dog," cuing a pack of dogs to enter the stage and attack the "idiot." Jack DeSena played an overly cruel judge, Slimon Bowell. Chelsea Brummet played an overly nice judge, Pauly Baboo.
Far Far Away Idol is an imitation found on the bonus features of the Shrek 2 DVD. Almost all of the characters sing a song of sorts, and then the viewer at home can vote for their favorite using their remote.
On NBC-TV's Saturday Night Live, there were at least two parody episodes: One with celebrities (Some impersonations being Finesse Mitchell as Kelis, Jessica Simpson as Britney Spears, Amy Poehler as Madonna and Nick Lachey as Scott Stapp from Creed), and another with people with physical problems. Simon Cowell was portrayed by Chris Parnell. Justin Guarini and Taylor Hicks were briefly parodied (Guarini during the host's opening monologue, and Hicks during Weekend Update).
The Spanish language television network Telefutura, owned by Univision, also shows a Puerto Rican-American version of the show, called Objetivo Fama [14] ("Objective Fame").
Dutch independent martial arts filmmakers Baaah Productions have parodied the Dutch version of the show, under the name Kungfu Idol.
The film American Dreamz satirizes the show, the American people (contestants and viewers), the George W. Bush Administration and Mandy Moore stars as the Carrie Underwood character.
In the American Nicktoon series The Fairly OddParents the episode Fairy Idol is a parody this show.
Most likely inspired by Idol's success, in 2003 CBS revived Star Search, the long-running syndicated program. Arsenio Hall took over for Ed McMahon as host, and the show also featured celebrity judges such as Ben Stein and Naomi Judd, with Judd assuming the "brutally honest judge" role similar to Simon Cowell on Idol. Although more of an overall talent competition, the show only could garner middling ratings before being cancelled after the 2004 season.

Predecessor Shows
Though it was a predecessor, not an imitator, of American Idol, and though it had a somewhat different format, the 1950s TV show Arthur Godfrey's Talent Scouts was a #1 rated program that launched the careers of many famous entertainers. Godfrey's show was in turn a contemporary of and (at least in part) inspired by Ted Mack's Original Amateur Hour, which started out as a radio show.
Additionally, AI's showcasing for entertainment value of extremely poor acts - most of whom were oblivious to just how bad they were - mirrored The Gong Show and other shows such as Best of the Worst.

For more information on American Idol, please visit
Wikipedia.
Graduation
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Academic procession during the University of Canterbury graduation ceremony.Graduation is the action of receiving or conferring an academic degree or the associated ceremony. The date of event is often called degree day. In the United States and Canada, it is also used to refer to the advancement from a primary or secondary school level. Many colleges have different traditions associated with the graduation ceremony, the best-known probably being throwing mortarboards in the air.

Contents
1 United States
1.1 Graduation speech
2 United Kingdom
2.1 University of Cambridge

United States
Graduation ceremonies in the United States are often orchestrated procedures involving a march of students onto the stage, the reading of speeches, the giving of diplomas, and an official moment when the students are declared graduated, also called the commencement exercise. The march is often set to music, usually Edward Elgar's Pomp and Circumstance March No. 1. In respect for the graduates, the audience is asked to rise to their feet during the processional as the graduates enter the auditorium and remain standing through the invocation. In United States colleges and universities, the speakers will include the salutatorian, an alumnus of the institution, possibly a famous speaker not associated with the institution, and the valedictorian. The giving of diplomas usually takes up the longest portion of the ceremony: One by one the graduates come forward as their names and major/minor announced. Each of them is given a diploma by an academic administrator or official such as the dean. It is very common for graduates not to receive their actual diploma at the ceremony but instead a certificate indicating that they participated in the ceremony or a booklet to hold the diploma in. At the high school level, this allows teachers to withhold diplomas from students who are unruly during the ceremony; at the college level, this allows students who need an extra quarter or semester to participate in the official ceremony with their classmates.
Traditional "hat toss" at a graduation ceremony at the United States Naval AcademyAt most colleges and universities in the US, the faculty technically will recommend that each candidate be given a degree, which is then formally conferred by the President or other institutional official. Typically, this is accomplished by a pair of short set speeches by a senior academic official and a senior institutional official: "Mr. President, on behalf of the faculty of Letters and Science, I hereby declare that these candidates have met all the requirements for the degree of...and request that such degree be conferred upon them." "Under the authority vested in me by the State of Iowa and the Trustees of Podunk College, I hereby confer upon these candidates the degree of..."

Graduation speech
A graduation speech, in the U.S., is a public speech given by a student or by alumnus of a university to a graduating class and their guests. Common themes of the graduation speech include wishing the graduates well in the "real world," cautioning that the world of academe is a special place where they were taught to think (a common variation contradicts this view). Ultimately, the speech is ceremonial, with attempts of humor and little wisdom or insight. Most recently, especially in prestigious institutions, the trend has been to find a celebrity (often one with no apparent connection to the specific institution or education in general) or a politician to deliver speeches.

United Kingdom
In the United Kingdom, unlike the United States, students do not usually 'graduate' from school below university level. They will normally leave secondary school and sixth form college (if applicable) with specific qualifications, often GCSEs and A-levels respectively (Standard Grades and Higher National Courses in Scotland). However, these are not diplomas and are not necessarily presented in a formal ceremony.
Many university graduation ceremonies in the United Kingdom begin with a procession of academics, wearing academic regalia. This procession is accompanied by music, and a ceremonial mace is often carried. However, Pomp and Circumstance is not played, since this is a patriotic hymn. After this, an official reads out the names of the graduates one by one, organized by class of degree or by subject. When their names are called, the graduates walk across the stage to shake hands with a senior official, often the university's nominal Chancellor or the more important vice-chancellor, and receive their degree certificate. Graduates usually wear the academic regalia of the degree they are receiving. There are some exceptions to this rule; for example serving members of the armed forces may wear their military uniform. Some of the older universities may hold their graduation ceremonies in Latin, whilst member institutions of the University of Wales hold their graduation ceremonies almost entirely in the Welsh language, even though barely any students understand either of these languages. The Latin section of the ceremony may include a rendition of an anthem, sometimes called the unofficial anthem of all universities, the De Brevitate Vitae, also known as The Gaudeamus.

University of Cambridge
At the University of Cambridge, however, each graduation is a separate act of the university's governing body, the Regent House, and must be voted on as with any other act. First, an official will propose (in Latin) that the graduates be admitted to the relevant degree; a vote is then taken, although, in practice only, one vote will be cast in favor. Next, the graduates come forward in groups of four and kneel before the Vice-Chancellor, who wears a special graduation cape, and are told in Latin that they are admitted to their degrees. (In practice the head of the college often that of a graduate, is deputized for the Vice-Chancellor.) The graduation is by the Trinitarian Formula, "in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Spirit" (original Greek e?? t? ???µa t?? pat??? ?a? t?? ???? ?a? t?? a???? p?e?µat??, eis to onoma tou patros kai tou huiou kai tou hagiou pneumatos), otherwise it may be omitted or replaced for religious or personal reasons. The graduates wear the academic dress that they were entitled to before graduating: for example, most students becoming Bachelors of Arts wear undergraduate gowns.

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