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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Children playing Association Football.A sport consists of a physical and mentally competitive activity carried out with a recreational purpose for competition, for self-enjoyment, to attain excellence, for the development of a skill, or some combination of these. A sport has physical activity, side by side competition, self-motivation and a scoring system. The difference of purpose is what characterises sport, combined with the notion of individual (or team) skill or prowess.

1 History of sport
2 A classification of sports
2.1 Opponent
2.2 Achievement
2.3 Sports that fall into multiple categories
3 Sportsmanship
4 Professionalism and the regulation of sport
5 Sport and politics
6 Art and sport
7 The terms 'sport' and 'sports'

History of sport
Main article: History of sport
The development of sports throughout history teaches us a great deal about social changes, and about the nature of sport itself.
There are many modern discoveries in France, Africa, and Australia of cave art (see, for example, Lascaux) from prehistory which provide evidence of ritual ceremonial behaviour. Some of these sources date from over 30,000 years ago, as established by carbon dating. Although there is scant direct evidence of sport from these sources, it is reasonable to extrapolate that there was some activity at these times resembling sport.
There are artifacts and structures which suggest that Chinese people engaged in activities which meet our definition of sport as early as 4000 BC. Gymnastics appears to have been a popular sport in China's past. Monuments to the Pharaohs indicate that a range of sports were well developed and regulated several thousands of years ago, including swimming and fishing. Other sports included javelin throwing, high jump, and wrestling. Ancient Persian sports such as the traditional Iranian martial art of Zourkhaneh had a close connection to the warfare skills. Among other sports which originate in Persia are polo and jousting.
A wide range of sports were already established at the time of the Ancient Greece. Wrestling, running, boxing, javelin, discus throwing, and chariot racing were prevalent. This suggests that the military culture of Greece was an influence on the development of its sports and vice versa. The Olympic Games were held every four years in Ancient Greece, at a small village in Pelopponisos called Olympia.
Sport has been increasingly organised and regulated from the time of the Ancient Olympics up to the present century. Activities necessary for food and survival became regulated activities done for pleasure or competition on an increasing scale, for example hunting, fishing, horticulture. The Industrial Revolution and mass production brought increased leisure which allowed increases in spectator sports, less elitism in sports, and greater accessibility. These trends continued with the advent of mass media and global communication. Professionalism became prevalent, further adding to the increase in sport's popularity. Not only has professionalism helped increase the popularity of sports, but additionally the need to have fun and take a break from a hectic workday or to relieve unwanted stress, as with any profession.

A classification of sports
Main article: List of sports
One system for classifying sports is as follows, based more on the sport's aim than on the actual mechanics. The examples given are intended to be illustrative, rather than comprehensive.

Combat (wrestling, Judo, karate, boxing, fencing, tae kwon do...)
Court (tennis, shuttlecock sport, badminton, volleyball, squash, table tennis...)
Team (baseball, american football, basketball, hockey, football (soccer),Gaelic football[1] lacrosse, cricket, netball, rugby, croquet, cheerleading ...)

Target (archery, shooting, dart...)
Display (gymnastics, bodybuilding, equestrianism, diving...)
Strength (weight-lifting, triple jump, shot put...)
Endurance (running, cycling, swimming, triathlon, orienteering, cross-country skiing...)

Sports that fall into multiple categories
Stock car racing

Sportsmanship is defined as "conduct and attitude considered as befitting participants, including a sense of fair play, courtesy toward teammates and opponents, a striving spirit, and grace in losing."
It is interesting that the motivation for sport is often an elusive element. For example, beginners in sailing are often told that dinghy racing is a good means to sharpen the learner's sailing skills. However, it often emerges that skills are honed to increase racing performance and achievements in competition, rather than the converse. Sportsmanship expresses an aspiration or ethos that the activity will be enjoyed for its own sake. The well-known sentiment by sports journalist Grantland Rice, that it's “not that you won or lost but how you played the game," and the Modern Olympic creed expressed by its founder Pierre de Coubertin: "The most important thing . . . is not winning but taking part” are typical expressions of this sentiment.
But often the pressures of competition (See the related article, "Winning isn't everything; it's the only thing." or an obsession with individual achievement - as well as the intrusion of technology - can all work against enjoyment and fair play by participants.
People responsible for leisure activities often seek recognition and respectability as sports by joining sports federations such as the IOC, or by forming their own regulatory body. In this way sports evolve from leisure activity to more formal sports: relatively recent newcomers are BMX cycling, snowboarding, wrestling, etc. Some of these activities have been popular but uncodified pursuits in various forms for different lengths of time. Indeed, the formal regulation of sport is a relatively modern and increasing development.
Sportsmanship, within any given game, is how each competitor acts before, during, and after the competition. Not only is it important to have good sportsmanship if one wins, but also if one loses. For example, in football it is considered sportsmanlike to kick the ball out of play to allow treatment for an injured player on the other side. Reciprocally, the other team is expected to return the ball from the throw-in.
Compare Sportsmanship with Gamesmanship.
Violence in sports involves crossing the line between fair competition and intentional aggressive violence. Athletes, coaches, fans, and parents sometimes unleash violent behaviour on people or property, in misguided shows of loyalty, dominance, anger, or celebration.

Professionalism and the regulation of sport
The entertainment aspect of sport, together with the spread of mass media and increased leisure time, has led to professionalism in sport. This has resulted in some conflict, where the paycheck can be seen as more important than recreational aspects: or where the sport is changed simply to make it more profitable and popular therefore losing some of the traditions valued by some.
The entertainment aspect also means that sportsmen and women are often elevated to celebrity status, or in some cases near-god-like.
The successful execution of a sport requires the consensus agreement of the participants on a set of rules for fair competition. This has led to the control of each sport through a regulatory body to define what methods of competition are acceptable and what are considered cheating.

Sport and politics
There have been many dilemmas for sports where a difficult political context is in place.
When apartheid was the official policy in South Africa, many sportspeople adopted the conscientious approach that they should not appear in competitive sports there. Some feel this was an effective contribution to the eventual demolition of the policy of apartheid, others feel that it may have prolonged and reinforced its worst effects.
The 1936 Summer Olympics held in Berlin was an illustration, perhaps best recognised in retrospect, where an ideology was developing which used the event to strengthen its spread through propaganda.
In the history of Ireland, Gaelic sports were connected with cultural nationalism. Even until the mid 20th century a person could have been banned from playing Gaelic football, hurling, or other sports administered by the Gaelic Athletic Association if s/he played or supported football, or other games seen to be of British origin. Until recently the GAA continued to ban the playing of football and rugby union at Gaelic venues under Rule 42 this ban is still enforce but has been modified to allow football and rugby be played in Croke Park while Lansdowne Road is being redeveloped. Until recently, under Rule 21, the GAA also banned members of the British security forces and members of the RUC, now reconstituted as the PSNI, from playing Gaelic games, but the advent of the Good Friday Agreement in 1998 led to the eventual removal of the ban.
Nationalism in general is often evident in the pursuit of sport, or in its reporting: people compete in national teams, or commentators and audiences can adopt a partisan view. These trends are seen by some as contrary to the fundamental ethos of sport being carried on for its own sake, for the enjoyment of its participants.
See also: List of countries by national sport

Art and sport
Sport has many affinities with art. Ice skating and Tai chi, for example, are sports that come close to artistic spectacles in themselves: to watch these activities comes close to the experience of spectating at a ballet. Similarly, there are other activities that have elements of sport and art in their execution, such as performance art, artistic gymnastics, Bodybuilding, Parkour, Yoga, dressage, etc. Perhaps the best example is Bull-fighting, which in Spain is reported in the arts pages of newspapers.
The fact that art is so close to sport in some situations is probably related to the nature of sport. The definition of "sport" above put forward the idea of an activity pursued not just for the usual purposes, for example, running not simply to get places, but running for its own sake, running as well as we can.
This is similar to a common view of aesthetic value, which is seen as something over and above the strictly functional value coming from an object's normal use. So an aesthetically pleasing car is one which doesn't just get from A to B, but which impresses us with its grace, poise, and charisma.
In the same way, a sporting performance such as jumping doesn't just impress us as being an effective way to avoid obstacles or to get across streams. It impresses us because of the ability, skill, and style which is shown.
Art and sport were probably more clearly linked at the time of Ancient Greece, when gymnastics and calisthenics invoked admiration and aesthetic appreciation for the physical build, prowess and 'arete' displayed by participants. The modern term 'art' as skill, is related to this ancient Greek term 'arete'. The closeness of art and sport in these times was revealed by the nature of the Olympic Games which, as we have seen, were celebrations of both sporting and artistic achievements, poetry, sculpture and architecture.

The terms 'sport' and 'sports'
In Commonwealth English, sporting activities are commonly denoted by the collective noun "sport". In American English, "sports" is more common for this usage. In all English dialects, "sports" is the term used for more than one specific sport. For example, "football and swimming are my favourite sports" would sound natural to all English speakers, whereas "I enjoy sport" would sound less natural than "I enjoy sports" to many North Americans.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Tigers playing in the water.
Girl playing on tire swing.
Adults canoeing, enjoying the day.
Spontaneous and original fun.Recreation is the employment of time in a non-profitable way, in many ways also a therapeutic refreshment of one's body or mind. While leisure is more likely a form of entertainment or rest, recreation is active and participatory, but in a refreshing and diverting manner. As people in the world's wealthier regions lead increasingly sedentary life styles, the need for recreation has grown. The rise of so called active vacations exemplify this.
Recreation..... play, and fun are not the preserve of humans; nearly all creatures indulge in this to some extent. Play is essential for the development of skills, the most basic of which are motor skills in young creatures.
The choice of hours for recreation is for employees restricted by the requirements of, and agreements with, the employer (working time), and for students restricted by school hours. For people with their own business it is also restricted by the requirements of the work, such as the opening hours of the business based on wishes of customers, laws, and customs.
The weekend is typically a time for recreation, perhaps (in Judeo-Christian and Muslim cultures) because the Sabbath falls on the weekend and the Sabbath is "the day of rest." Holidays are also a common time for recreation.
Traditionally music and dance serve as recreation in many cultures, as do sports, hobbies, games (playing) and tourism. Watching TV and listening to music are common forms of recreation, or rather leisure.
For many, the most valued recreation is spontaneous and original.
Many activities may be considered recreational:
Eating and drinking
Hunting and fishing
Playing games
Reading a book
Sexual behavior
Kite flying
Sports and exercise
Travel and tourism
Martial arts
Using the Internet
Visiting an amusement park
Recreational drug usage, by itself and in combination with the many of the above
In recent years, more 'exciting' forms of recreation have risen in popularity[citation needed]: skiing, snowboarding, bungee jumping, sky diving, hang gliding, paint balling, rock climbing, backpacking, canyoning, caving, BASE jumping, and adventure tourism.
Some recreational activities are made illegal in many legal jurisdictions because of the perceived immorality of certain forms of recreation. These include gambling, some forms of sex, and drug use. Often one form of an activity is arbitrarily viewed as immoral by a culture while other forms are acceptable. For example, some forms of sex have been outlawed in certain regions, such as prohibitions against sodomy and oral sex in much of the United States (though the Supreme Court recently ruled such laws unconstitutional in the landmark Lawrence v. Texas case), while other forms of intercourse are acceptable. Another example is recreational drug use. In most of the world, responsible alcohol consumption, a form of recreational drug use, is legal and acceptable by most people's moral standards. This is probably because alcohol has traditionally been in wide use in Western Europe. Note that nearly all drugs that have traditionally not been widely used in European culture have been deemed illegal in most of the world. This does not typically effect the usage rates for most drugs. However, in much of the Western world, legalization of so-called soft drugs is slowly beginning to be widely accepted.
Some individuals view recreation as largely non-productive, even trivial. Excessive recreation is not considered healthy, and may be labeled as escapism. However, research has shown that recreation contributes to life satisfaction, quality of life, health and wellness, and that the use of recreation as a diversion may have clinical applications to individuals with chronic pain and other health impairments. In some cultures and religions, recreation is encouraged on certain days and discouraged on others. For example, in Judaism, the Sabbath is a day for recreation and relaxation, which has in turn influenced many Christian sects to use the Sabbath for the same purpose. However, some sects interpret the Sabbath to be a day where worship is done in lieu of recreation.
Recreation is essential to the longevity of human beings. It is roughly the opposite of stress. Today, stress is the number one killer in the United States according to TIME magazine. Stress can lead to a number of ailments, such as hypertension.
Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Recreation"
Categories: Wikify from May 2006 | Category needed | Articles with unsourced statements.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Ticket (unseperated) of the Kurkino in Berchtesgaden
CeBIT Home 1998 student day ticket with barcode
A Parisian's transport ticketTicket can mean one of several things:

1 Permission
2 Receipt
3 Notification
4 Elections
5 Computer security
6 Maintenance

A ticket is a voucher to indicate that one has paid for admission to a theatre, movie theater, amusement park, zoo, museum, concert, or other attraction, or permission to travel on an airplane, public transit, boat trip, etc., typically because one has paid the fare.
A ticket may be bought at a ticket window or counter, also called box office (this term is also used for the total receipts). The ticket check may be there, or it may be separate.
Where applicable, a ticket may be for an arbitrary seat ("free seating") or for a specific one. Sometimes, e.g. for some train journeys, one can either just buy a ticket, or also a seat reservation.
Paper is generally used, although plastic may be used instead. Some have a barcode or magnetic stripe for keeping simple data stored on them.
Counterfeit tickets are a problem at high-priced concerts and other events, so holograms are used on tickets for the Olympic Games, Super Bowl, and other high-profile events.
No tickets are needed in the case of voluntary contributions, e.g. after a street performance; in fact, a ticket system is often neither practical nor legal in such a case.
Free tickets are applied in virtual queueing. In a place where one has to wait one's turn, there may be the system that one takes a ticket with a number from a machine. It applies at the doctor/hospital, and at offices where many people visit, like the town hall, social security office, labor exchange, or post office.
A pass is a special ticket, representing some subscription, in particular for unlimited use of a service or collection of services, e.g.:
public transport
swimming pool
amusement park
sports facilities
Sometimes the pass replaces the tickets, sometimes it entitles the holder to free tickets. In the latter case typically at the ticket check both the pass and the ticket has to be shown.
Alternatively, there is the discount pass, for services such as those above: for a fee per unit time (or as a benefit on other grounds) one gets a discount on each purchase. Alternatively, a multi-use ticket (either valid a limited time, or indefinitely) may provide a discount. For example, a pass for entering a cinema 6 times within a year may cost the price of 4 or 5 tickets. A multi-use ticket may or may not be personal. If not, there may be a limitation to the number of people who can use the same multi-use ticket at the same time.

See also:
ticket machine
public transport ticket systems

A ticket may be a pick-up ticket, for example when retrieving clothing from a dry cleaning shop or an automobile from a repair shop, or putting things in storage at a train station, cloakroom, etc. It is also used in places where people are required to "take a number" to queue up, such as in a waiting room or at a customer service desk. Often, this simply has a number printed on it.

In (primarily US) law, a ticket is a notification that one has committed a minor legal infraction, for which a fine must be paid, and/or an appearance in court must be made (See: summons). Typically this means a parking ticket for parking in an unlawful manner or allowing a parking meter to expire, or a traffic ticket for a moving violation such as speeding.

A ticket often refers to a single election choice which fills more than one political office or seat. For example, in the U.S., the candidates for president and vice president run on the same "ticket", because they are elected together on a single ballot question rather than separately.
A ticket can also refer to a political party. In this case, the candidates for a given party are said to be running on the party's ticket. Straight party voting (most common in some U.S. states) is a means for a voter to cast a single vote for the entire party ticket, including every office the party has a candidate running for.

Computer security
A ticket is a number generated by a network server for a client, which can be delivered to itself, or a different server as a means of authentication or proof of authorization, and cannot easily be forged. This usage of the word originated with MIT's Kerberos (protocol) in the 1980s. Tickets may either be transparent, meaning they can be recognized without contacting the server that generated them; or opaque, meaning the original server must be contacted to verify that it issued the ticket.
Some magic cookies provide the same functionality as a ticket.

A ticket can also refer to a request for help with, or repair or maintenance of, an item or complicated system. In this context, a ticket is the record of the request and the follow-up actions taken to correct the problem.

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Wilderness is also the name of a city in South Africa, a band and an upcoming movie.
Wilderness is generally defined as a natural environment on Earth that has not been modified by human activity. Ecologists consider wilderness areas to be an integral part of the planet's self-sustaining natural ecosystem (the biosphere).
The Daintree Rainforest, a wilderness area in Queensland, Australia.The word, "wilderness", derives from the notion of wildness; in other words that which is not controllable by humans. The word's etymology is from the Old English wildeornes, which in turn derives from wildeor meaning wild beast (wild + deor = beast, deer) (The Collins English Dictionary, 2000). From this point of view, it is the wildness of a place that makes it a wilderness. The mere presence or activity of people does not disqualify an area from being "Wilderness." Many ecosystems that are, or have been, inhabited or influenced by activities of people may still be considered "wild." This way of looking at wilderness includes areas within which natural processes operate without human interference.

1 Conceptions of wilderness
2 History of wilderness preservation
2.1 Awareness of wild spaces
2.2 National parks
2.3 Conservation vs. preservation
3 Wilderness designations
4 Current estimates of wilderness

Conceptions of wilderness
Looked at through the lens of the visual arts, nature and wildness have been important subjects in various epochs of world history. An early tradition of landscape art occurred in the Tang Dynasty (618-907). The tradition of representing nature as it is became one of the aims of Chinese painting and was a significant influence in Asian art. Artists learned to depict mountains and rivers “from the perspective of nature as a whole and on the basis of their understanding of the laws of nature… as if seen through the eyes of a bird.” In the 13th century, Shih Erh Chi listed "scenes lacking any places made inaccessible by nature,” as one of the twelve things to avoid in painting. [1]
The idea of wilderness having intrinsic value emerged in the Western world in the 1800s. British artists John Constable and JMW Turner turned their attention to capturing the beauty of the natural world in their paintings. Prior to that paintings had been primarily of religious scenes or of human beings. William Wordsworth’s poetry described the wonder of the natural world, which had formerly been viewed as a threatening place. Increasingly the valuing of nature became an aspect of Western culture. [2]

History of wilderness preservation

Awareness of wild spaces
For most of human history, the greater part of the Earth's terrain was wilderness, and human attention was concentrated in settled areas. In the Middle Ages, the Kings of England initiated one of the world’s first conscious efforts to protect natural areas. They were motivated by a desire to be able to hunt wild animals in private hunting preserves rather then a desire to protect wilderness. Nevertheless, in order to have animals to hunt they would have to protect wildlife from subsistence hunting and the land from villagers gathering firewood.[2]
Early in the 19th century, Wordsworth and other romanticists in the U.K., concerned about "the excesses of industrialization and urbanization," called for a return to natural environments. This movement achieved some gains in protecting sensitive ecosystems, but a more successful form of environmentalism emerged in Germany by the mid 19th century. “Scientific Conservation,” as it was called, advocated "the efficient utilization of natural resources through the application of science and technology." Concepts of forest management based on the German approach were applied in other parts of the world, but with varying degrees of success.[3]
By the latter 19th century it had become clear that in many countries wild areas had either disappeared or were in danger of disappearing. This realisation gave rise to the conservation movement in the USA, partly through the efforts of writers and activists such as John Burroughs and John Muir, and politicians such as U.S. President Teddy Roosevelt).
Cook Lake in the Bridger Wilderness, Bridger-Teton National Forest, Wyoming, U.S.[edit]
National parks
The creation of National Parks, beginning in the 19th century, preserved some especially attractive and notable areas, but the pursuits of commerce, lifestyle, and recreation combined with increases in human population have continued to result in human modification of relatively untouched areas. Such human activity often negatively impacts native flora and fauna. As such, to better protect critical habitats and preserve low-impact recreational opportunities, legal concepts of "wilderness" were established in many countries, beginning with the United States (see below).
The first National Park was Yellowstone, established in 1872. The creation of this and other parks showed a growing appreciation of wild nature, but also an economic reality. The railways wanted to entice people to travel west.
This U.S. concept of national parks soon caught on in other countries. Canada created Banff National Park in the 1880s, at the same time as the transcontinental Canadian Pacific Railway was being built. Parks such as Banff and Yellowstone gained favor as the railroads advertised travel to "the great wild spaces" of North America. When outdoorsman Teddy Roosevelt became president of the United States, he began to enlarge the U.S. National Parks system, and established the National Forest system. [2]
By the 1920s, travel across North America by train to experience the "wilderness" (often viewing it only through windows) had become wildly popular. This led to the commercialization of some of Canada's National Parks with the building of great hotels such as the Banff Springs Hotel and Chateau Lake Louise.

Conservation vs. preservation
Two opposiing factions had emerged within the environmental movement by the early 20th century: the conservationists and the preservationists. The conservationists (such as Gifford Pinchot) focused on the proper use of nature, whereas the preservationists (like Muir) sought the protection of nature from use. [3]
The idea of protecting nature for nature's sake began to gain more recognition in the 1930s with American writers like Aldo Leopold, calling for a "land ethic" and urging wilderness protection. It had become increasingly clear that wild spaces were disappearing rapidly and that decisive action was needed to save them.
Global conservation became an issue at the time of the disolution of the British Empire in Africa in the late 1940s. The British established great wildlife preserves there. As before, this interest in conservation had an economic motive: in this case, big game hunting. Nevertheless, this led to growing recognition in the 1950s and the early 1960s of the need to protect large spaces for wildlife conservation worldwide. The World Wildlife Fund (WWF), founded in 1961, grew to be one of the largest conservation organisations in the world.[2]
Preservation again came to the fore in the 1960s with the publication of Rachel Carson’s, Silent Spring, in 1962 which was the genesis of the modern environmental movement. Major environmental groups such as the Sierra Club shifted from protesting to working with politicians to influence environmental policy. [3]

Wilderness designations
The United States was the first country to officially designate land as "wilderness" through the Wilderness Act of 1964. Wilderness designation helps preserve the natural state of the land and protect flora and fauna by prohibiting development and providing for non-motorized recreation. Recreation and development in Alaskan wilderness is often less restrictive.
Wilderness designations are granted by an Act of Congress for Federal land that retains a "primeval character" and that has no human habitation or development. Approximately 100 million acres (400,000 km˛) are designated as wilderness in the United States. This accounts for 4.71% of the total land of the country; however, 54% of wilderness is in Alaska, and only 2.58% of the continental United States is designated as wilderness.
There are 680 separate wilderness designations in the United States, from Florida's Pelican Island at 5 acres to Alaska's Wrangell-Saint Elias at 9,078,675 acres (36,740 km˛).

Current estimates of wilderness
According to an IUCN/UNEP report published in 2003, 10.9% of the world's land mass is currently a Catgory 1 Protected Area, that is, either a strict nature reserve (5.5%) or protected wilderness (5.4%). [4] Such areas remain relatively untouched by humans. Of course, there are large tracts of lands in National Parks and other protected areas that would also qualify as wilderness. However, many protected areas have some degree of human modification or activity, so a definitive estimate of true wilderness is difficult.
The Wildlife Conservation Society generated a human footprint using a number of indicators, the absense of which indicate wildness: human population density, human access via roads and rivers, human infrastructure for agriculture and settlements and the presence of industrial power (lights visible from space). The society estimates that 26 percent of the earth's land mass falls into the category of "Last of the wild." The wildest regions of the world include the boreal forests, the Amazonian rain forest, the Tibetan Plateau, the Australian outback and deserts such as the Sahara, and the Gobi.[5]

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Physical fitness
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Physical fitness is an attribute required for service in virtually all militaries.The notion of physical fitness is used in two close meanings.

1 General fitness
2 Task-oriented fitness
2.1 Military-style
3 Notable fitness instructors

General fitness
In its most general meaning, physical fitness is a general state of good physical health. A physically handicapped person's body may be physically fit (healthy), though their ability is likely to be less than optimum.
Physical fitness is a result of regular physical activity, proper diet and nutrition, and proper rest for physical recovery within the parameters allowed by the genome.
Physical fitness is often divided into following types:
Cardiovascular endurance
Muscular strength & endurance
Body Composition

Task-oriented fitness
A person may be said to be physically fit to perform a particular task with a reasonable efficiency, for example, fit for military service.

In recent years, Military-style fitness training programs have become increasingly popular among civilians. Courses are available all over the U.S. and Europe.
They are usually taught by ex-military personnel. Very often the instructors held highly regarded positions within various military organizations. Often times the instructors were formerly Drill instructors, Special Forces Operatives or held otherwise distinguished positions.
These courses always have some common elements. They often focus on military style calisthenics and group runs. The courses are often held very early in the morning and will meet in almost any weather. Students can expect push-ups, sit-ups, pullups, and jumping jacks, as well as more obscure drills such as flutter kicks, sun worshippers and flares. Almost invariably a workout will include short runs while longer runs are more scheduled. Special forces are renowned for their level of fitness and intensity of their workouts.

Notable fitness instructors
Charles Atlas
Billy Blanks (Creator of Tae Bo)
Matt Furey
Jack LaLanne
Dave Leslie 'Keeping in Shape' in Cambridge, England
Tony Little
John Peterson (Creator of Transformetrics)
Susan Powter
Richard Simmons

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