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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A German classroom, circa 1930s.‹The template Portal has been proposed for deletion here.› Schools Portal
‹The template Portal has been proposed for deletion here.› University Portal
‹The template Portal has been proposed for deletion here.› Education Portal
Education is a social science that encompasses teaching and learning specific knowledge, beliefs, and skills. Licensed and practicing teachers in the field use a variety of methods and materials in order to impart a curriculum. There has been a plethora of journals, magazines, books, and digests in the field of education that addresses these areas. Such literature addresses the teaching practices, with subjects that include lectures, game playing, testing, scheduling, record keeping, bullying, seating arrangements, interests, motivation, and computer access. However, the most important factors in any teacher's effectiveness is the interaction with students and personality of the teacher. The quality of their relationships provides the impetus for inspiration. The best teachers are able to translate good judgment, experience, and wisdom into the art of communication that students find compelling. It is their ability to understand and overcome prejudices, generate passion, and recognize potential that enable teachers to invigorate students with higher expectations of themselves and society at large. The goal is aiding the growth of students so that they become productive members of a migratory society. An imparting of culture from generation to generation (see socialisation) promotes a greater awareness and responsiveness through social maturity to the needs of an increasingly diversified global society.
3 Philosophy of education
3.1 The nature, origin and scope of knowledge
4 Psychology of education
5 Academic disciplines
6 Formal education
7 Alternative education
9.5 Online Educational Consultancy
9.6 Recent world-wide trends
10.1 Developing countries
11 Parental involvement
It is widely accepted that the process of education begins at birth and continues throughout life. Some believe that education begins even earlier than this, as evidenced by some parents' playing music or reading to the baby in the hope it will influence the child's development.
Education is often used to refer solely to formal education (see below). However, it covers a range of experiences, from formal learning to the building of understanding through day to day experiences. Ultimately, all that we experience serves as a form of education.
Individuals receive informal education from a variety of sources. Family members and mass media have a strong influence on the informal education of the individual.
The word education is derived from the Latin educare meaning "to raise", "to bring up", "to train", "to rear", via "educatio/nis", bringing up, raising. In recent times the myth has arisen of its derivation from a different verb: educere, meaning "to lead out" or "to lead forth"; however the English word from this verb is "eduction": drawing out. This false etymology is used to bolster one of the theories behind the function of education—to develop innate abilities and expand horizons.
Philosophy of education
Main article: Philosophy of education
The philosophy of education is the study of the purpose, nature and ideal content of education. Related topics include knowledge itself, the nature of the knowing mind and the human subject, problems of authority, the relationship between education and society, and so on. At least since Rousseau's time, the philosophy of education has been linked to theories of developmental psychology and human development.
Fundamental purposes that have been proposed for education include:
The enterprise of civil society depends on educating young people to become responsible, thoughtful and enterprising citizens. This is an intricate, challenging task requiring deep understanding of ethical principles, moral values, political theory, aesthetics, and economics; not to mention an understanding of who children are, in themselves and in society.
Progress in every practical field depends upon having capacities that schooling can educate. Education thus is a means to fostering the individual's, society's, and even humanity's future development and prosperity. Emphasis is often put on economic success in this regard.
One's individual development and the capacity to fulfill one's own purposes can depend upon an adequate preparation in childhood. Education thus can attempt to give a firm foundation for the achievement of personal fulfillment. The better the foundation that is built, the more successful the child will be. Simple basics in education can carry a child far.
The nature, origin and scope of knowledge
Main article: Epistemology
See also: Data, Information, Knowledge, Wisdom, Self-realization, and Ability
A central tenet of education typically includes “the imparting of knowledge.” At a very basic level, this purpose ultimately deals with the nature, origin and scope of knowledge. The branch of philosophy that addresses these and related issues is known as epistemology. This area of study often focuses on analyzing the nature and variety of knowledge and how it relates to similar notions such as truth and belief.
While the term, knowledge, often is used to convey this general purpose of education, it also can be viewed as part of a continuum of knowing that ranges from very specific data to the highest levels. Seen in this light, the continuum may be thought of to be comprised of a general hierarchy of overlapping levels of knowing. Students must be able to connect new information to a piece of old information to better be able to learn, understand, and retain information. This continuum may include notions such as data, information, knowledge, wisdom, and realization.
Psychology of education
Main article: Educational psychology
Educational psychology is the study of how humans learn in educational settings, the effectiveness of educational interventions, the psychology of teaching, and the social psychology of schools as organizations. Although the terms "educational psychology" and "school psychology" are often used interchangeably, researchers and theorists are likely to be identified as educational psychologists, whereas practitioners in schools or school-related settings are identified as school psychologists. Educational psychology is concerned with the processes of educational attainment among the general population and sub-populations such as gifted children and those subject to specific disabilities.
Educational psychology can in part be understood through its relationship with other disciplines. It is informed primarily by psychology, bearing a relationship to that discipline analogous to the relationship between medicine and biology. Educational psychology in turn informs a wide range of specialities within educational studies, including instructional design, educational technology, curriculum development, organizational learning, special education and classroom management. Educational psychology both draws from and contributes to cognitive science and the learning sciences. In universities, departments of educational psychology are usually housed within faculties of education, possibly accounting for the lack of representation of educational psychology content in introductory psychology textbooks (Lucas, Blazek, & Raley, 2006).
Main article: List of academic disciplines
An academic discipline is a branch of knowledge which is formally taught, either at the university, or via some other such method. Functionally, disciplines are usually defined and recognized by the academic journals in which research is published, and the learned societies to which their practitioners belong.
Each discipline usually has several sub-disciplines or branches and distinguishing lines are often both arbitrary and ambiguous. Examples of broad areas of academic disciplines include the natural sciences, mathematics, computer science, social sciences, humanities and applied sciences.
Formal education occurs when society or a group or an individual sets up a curriculum to educate people, usually the young. Formal education can become systematic and thorough. Formal education systems can be used to promote doctrines or ideals as well as knowledge and this can sometimes lead to abuse of the system.
Life-long or adult education has become widespread in many countries. However, education is still seen by many as something aimed at children, and adult education is often branded as adult learning or lifelong learning.
Adult education takes on many forms from formal class-based learning to self-directed learning. Lending libraries provide inexpensive informal access to books and other self-instructional materials. Many adults have also taken advantage of the rise in computer ownership and internet access to further their informal education.
Main article: Alternative education
Alternative education, also known as non-traditional education or educational alternative, describes a number of approaches to teaching and learning other than traditional publicly- or privately-run schools. These approaches can be applied to all students of all ages, from infancy to adulthood, and all levels of education.
Educational alternatives often are the result of education reform and are rooted in various philosophies that are fundamentally different from those of mainstream compulsory education. While some have strong political, scholarly, or philosophical orientations, others are more informal associations of teachers and students somehow dissatisfied with certain aspects of mainstream education.
Educational alternatives, which include charter schools, alternative schools, independent schools, and home-based learning vary widely, but often emphasize the value of small class size, close relationships between students and teachers, and a sense of community. For some, especially in the United States, the term alternative refers to educational settings for "at-risk" youth, as well as those in need of special education, rather than educational alternatives for all students.
Main article: Educational technology
Inexpensive technology is an increasingly influential factor in education. Computers and mobile phones are being widely used in developed countries to both complement established education practices and develop new ways of learning such as online education (a type of distance education). This gives students discretion in what they are interested in learning. The proliferation of computers also means the increase of programming and blogging. Technology clearly offers powerful learning tools that can engage students, such as classroom management software.
For more details on this topic, see History of education.
In 1994, Dieter Lenzen, president of the Freie Universität Berlin, said "education began either millions of years ago or at the end of 1770". This quote by Lenzen includes the idea that education as a science cannot be separated from the educational traditions that existed before. The first chair of pedagogy was founded at the end of the 1770s at the University of Halle, Germany.
Education was the natural response of early civilizations to the struggle of surviving and thriving as a culture. Adults trained the young of their society in the knowledge and skills they would need to master and eventually pass on. The evolution of culture, and human beings as a species depended on this practice of transmitting knowledge. In pre-literate societies this was achieved orally and through imitation. Story-telling continued from one generation to the next. Oral language developed into written symbols and letters. The depth and breadth of knowledge that could be preserved and passed soon increased exponentially.
When cultures began to extend their knowledge beyond the basic skills of communicating, trading, gathering food, religious practices, etc, formal education, and schooling, eventually followed. Schooling in this sense was already in place in Egypt between 3000 and 500BC.
Basic education today is considered those skills that are necessary to function in society.
In the West, the origins of education were heavily influenced by the specific organized religion: priests and monks realised the importance of promoting positive virtues in the young and founded, maintained, and staffed school systems. In Europe, many of the first universities have Catholic roots. Following the Reformation in Scotland the newly established national Church of Scotland set out a programme for spiritual reform in January 1561 setting the principle of a schoolteacher for every parish church and free education for the poor. In 1633 an Act of the Parliament of Scotland introduced a tax to pay for this programme, and by the end of the 17th century education in Scotland brought literacy to much of the population, with the system being used by all except the nobility. In the German language there are two words for education: Bildung (which means cultivation, formation and creation) and Erziehung (which means breeding and instructing).
During and following the Age of Enlightenment people largely forgot the relationship between religion and education. Jean-Jacques Rousseau fuelled an influential early-Romanticism reaction to formalised religion-based education at a time when the concept of childhood had started to become popular as a distinct aspect of human development.
The Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth's Commission of National Education (Polish: Komisja Edukacji Narodowej, Lithuanian: Nacionaline Edukacine Komisija) formed in 1773 counts as the first Ministry of Education in the history of mankind.
Conventional social history narrates how by about the beginning of the 19th century the industrial revolution a demand for masses of disciplined, inter-changeable workers possessing minimal literacy became commonplace. In these circumstances, the state began to mandate and dictate attendance at standardized schools with a state-ordained curriculum. The general and vocational education paths of the 20th century soon emerged. With increasing economic specialization demanding increasingly specialized skills from a population, children spent longer periods in formal education before entering or while engaged in the workforce.
Education in China began with the Chinese classic texts, rather than organized religion. The early Chinese state depended upon literate, educated officials for operation of the empire, and an imperial examination system was established in the Han Dynasty (206 BC-220) for evaluating and selecting officials. This merit-based system gave rise to schools that taught the classics and continued in use for 2,000 years, until the end the Qing Dynasty, and was abolished in 1911 in favour of Western education methods.
Main article: History of education in Japan
The origins of education in Japan are closely related to religion. Schooling was conducted at temples for youngsters who wanted to study Buddhism to become priests. Later, children who were willing to study started to meet at places called, "Tera-koya" (literally meaning temple huts) and learned how to read and write Japanese.
Main article: Education in India
India has a long history of organized education. The Gurukul system of education is one of the oldest on earth, and was dedicated to the highest ideals of all-round human development: physical, mental and spiritual. Gurukuls were traditional Hindu residential schools of learning; typically the teacher's house or a monastery. Education was free, but students from well-to-do families payed Gurudakshina, a voluntary contribution after the completion of their studies. At the Gurukuls, the teacher imparted knowledge of Religion, Scriptures, Philosophy, Literature, Warfare, Statecraft, Medicine Astrology and History (the Sanskrit word "Itihaas" means History). The first millennium and the few centuries preceding it saw the flourishing of higher education at Nalanda, Takshashila University, Ujjain, & Vikramshila Universities. Art, Architecture, Painting, Logic, Grammar, Philosophy, Astronomy, Literature, Buddhism, Hinduism, Arthashastra (Economics & Politics), Law, and Medicine were among the subjects taught and each university specialized in a particular field of study. Takshila specialized in the study of medicine, while Ujjain laid emphasis on astronomy. Nalanda, being the biggest centre, handled all branches of knowledge, and housed up to 10,000 students at its peak. British records show that education was widespread in the 18th century, with a school for every temple, mosque or village in most regions of the country. The subjects taught included Reading, Writing, Arithmetic, Theology, Law, Astronomy, Metaphysics, Ethics, Medical Science and Religion. The schools were attended by students representative of all classes of society. The current system of education, with its western style and content, was introduced & funded by the British in the 20th century, following recommendations by Macaulay. Traditional structures were not recognized by the British government and have been on the decline since. Gandhi is said to have described the traditional educational system as a beautiful tree that was destroyed during the British rule.
Online Educational Consultancy
Education Guru was launched to provide free educational consultancy to confused students.
Recent world-wide trends
Overall, illiteracy has greatly decreased in recent years.
Illiteracy and the percentage of populations without any schooling have decreased in the past several decades. For example, the percentage of population without any schooling decreased from 36% in 1960 to 25% in 2000.
Among developing countries, illiteracy and percentages without schooling in 2000 stood at about half the 1970 figures. Among developed countries, illiteracy rates decreased from 6% to 1%, and percentages without schooling decreased from 5% to 2%.
Illiteracy rates in less economically developed countries (LEDCs) surpassed those of more economically developed countries (MEDCs) by a factor of 10 in 1970, and by a factor of about 20 in 2000. Illiteracy decreased greatly in LDCs, and virtually disappeared in MDCs. Percentages without any schooling showed similar patterns.
Percentages of the population with no schooling varied greatly among LDCs in 2000, from less than 10% to over 65%. MDCs had much less variation, ranging from less than 2% to 17%.
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The goal of education is the development of individuals' capacity to be happy, successful, and productive members of society. Current education issues include which teaching method(s) are most effective, how to determine what knowledge should be taught, which knowledge is most relevant, and how well the pupil will retain incoming knowledge. Educators such as George Counts and Paulo Freire identified education as an inherently political process with inherently political outcomes. The challenge of identifying whose ideas are transferred and what goals they serve has always stood in the face of formal and informal education.
In addition to the "Three R's", reading, writing, and arithmetic, Western primary and secondary schools attempt to teach the basic knowledge of history, geography, mathematics (usually including calculus and algebra), physics, chemistry and sometimes politics, in the hope that students will retain and use this knowledge as they age or that the skills acquired will be transferrable. The current education system measures competency with tests and assignments and then assigns each student a corresponding grade. The grades usually come in the form of either a letter grade or a percentage, which are intended to represent the amount of all material presented in class that the student understood.
Educational progressives or advocates of unschooling often believe that grades do not necessarily reveal the strengths and weaknesses of a student, and that there is an unfortunate lack of youth voice in the educative process. Some feel the current grading system lowers students' self-confidence, as students may receive poor marks due to factors outside their control. Such factors include poverty, child abuse, and prejudiced or incompetent teachers.
By contrast, many advocates of a more traditional or "back to basics" approach believe that the direction of reform needs to be the opposite. Students are not inspired or challenged to achieve success because of the dumbing down of the curriculum and the replacement of the "canon" with inferior material. Their view of self-confidence is that it arises not from removing hurdles such as grading, but by making them fair and encouraging students to gain pride from knowing they can jump over these hurdles.
On the one hand, Albert Einstein, the most famous physicist of the twentieth century, credited with helping us understand the universe better, was not a model school student. He was uninterested in what was being taught, and he did not attend classes all the time. However, his gifts eventually shone through and added to the sum of human knowledge. On the other hand, for millennia those who have been challenged and well-educated in traditional schools have risen to great success and to a lifelong love of learning because their minds were made better and more powerful, as well as because of their mastery of a wide range of skills.
There are a number of highly controversial issues in education. Should some knowledge be forgotten? What should be taught, are we better off knowing how to build nuclear bombs, or is it best to let such knowledge be forgotten? There are also some philosphies, for example Transcendentalism, that would probably reject conventional education in the belief that knowledge should be gained through purely personal experience.
A recent book argues that children are being expected to learn too much. In Yaneer Bar-Yam's book, Making Things Work, he writes, "There is an ongoing tendency to increase the length of textbooks. There are various reasons why people want to add to the education of children. People who work on education often believe, nobly enough, that the most important contribution is to get children to learn more. Publishers want to sell new books and adding new material is an important aspect of an effective sales pitch". Y. Bar-Yam, Making Things Work, NECSI/Knowledge Press, 2005.
The cost of higher education in developed countries is increasingly becoming an issue.
In developing countries, the number and seriousness of the problems faced is naturally greater. People are sometimes unaware of the importance of education, and there is economic pressure from those parents who prioritize their children's making money in the short term over any long-term benefits of education. Recent studies on child labor and poverty have suggested, however, that when poor families reach a certain economic threshold where families are able to provide for their basic needs, parents return their children to school. This has been found to be true, once the threshold has been breached, even if the potential economic value of the children's work has increased since their return to school. Teachers are often paid less than other similar professions.
A lack of good universities, and a low acceptance rate for good universities is evident in countries with a relatively high population density. In some countries there are uniform, overstructured, inflexible centralized programs from a central agency that regulates all aspects of education.
Due to globalization, increased pressure on students in curricular activities
Removal of a certain percentage of students for improvisation of academics (usually practised in schools, after 10th grade)
India however is starting to develop technologies that will skip land based phone and internet lines. Instead, India launched EDUSAT an education satellite that can reach more of the country at a greatly reduced cost. There is also an initiative started by a group out of MIT and supported by several major corporations to develop a $100 laptop. The laptops should be available by late 2006 or 2007. The laptops, sold at cost, will enable developing countries to give their children a digital education, and to close the digital divide across the world.
In Africa, NEPAD has launched an "e-school programme" to provide all 600,000 primary and high schools with computer equipment, learning materials and internet access within 10 years.
Private groups, like The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, are working to give more individuals opportunities to receive education in developing countries through such programs as the Perpetual Education Fund.
An International Development Agency Nabuur.com started with the support of American President Bill Clinton uses the internet to allow co-operation by individuals on issues of social development.
Parental involvement is a necessary thing when it comes to a child's educational development. Early and consistent parental involvement in the child's life is critical such as reading to children at an early age, teaching patterns, interpersonal communication skills, exposing them to diverse cultures and the community around them, educating them on a healthy lifestyle, etc. The socialization and academic education of a child are aided by the involvement of the student, parent(s), teachers, and others in the community and extended family.
Academic achievement and parental involvement are strongly linked in the research. Many schools are now beginning parental involvement programs in a more organized fashion, in part due to the No Child Left Behind legislation from the US Department of Education.
Education is becoming more and more international. Not only are the materials becoming more influenced by the rich international environment. Exchanges among students at all levels are playing a more and more important role. In Europe, for example, there's the Socrates-Erasmus network, stimulating exchanges across European universities. And the Soros Foundation provides many opportunities for students from central Asia and eastern Europe. Some scholars argue that, regardless of whether one system is considered better or worse than another, experiencing a different way of education can often be considered to be the most important, enriching element of an international learning experience (Dubois et al. 2006).
For more information on Education, please visit Wikipedia.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Students in Rome, Italy.A school is most commonly a place designated for learning. The range of institutions covered by the term varies from country to country.
In many countries, including the United States and United Kingdom, a school may also be a partially autonomous or entirely separate institution (not necessarily a part of a system of compulsory public education at all) dedicated to learning within one particular field, such as a school of economics (e.g. the London School of Economics), a school of dance, or a school of journalism.
1 Schools around the world
1.2 United Kingdom
1.3 North America
1.4 United States
2 See also
3 External links
3.2 Against school
Schools around the world
American high school students in a school
In much of continental Europe, the term school usually applies to primary education, with primary schools that last between six and nine years, depending on the country. It also applies to secondary education, with secondary schools often divided between Gymnasien and vocational schools, which again depending on country and type of school take between three and six years. The term school is rarely used for tertiary education, except for some upper or high schools (German: Hochschule) which are more accurately translated as colleges.
In the United Kingdom, the term school refers primarily to pre-university institutions; these are typically categorized as primary schools (sometimes further divided into infant school and junior school), or secondary schools. School performance is monitored by Ofsted in England, Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education in Scotland, and Estyn in Wales.
In North America, the term school can refer to any institute of education, at any level and covers all of the following: preschool (for toddlers), kindergarten, elementary school, middle school (also called intermediate school or junior high school, depending on specific age groups and geographic region), high school, college, university, and graduate school. In North American countries, schooling is mandatory for all children. The ages at which schooling is mandatory vary according to states and provinces. Funding for primary and secondary education is provided for by the state or provincial government.
In the United States, school performance through high school is monitored by each state's Department of Education. Many of the earlier public schools in the United States were one-room schools where a single teacher taught seven grades of boys and girls in the same classroom. Beginning in the 1920s, one-room schools were consolidated into multiple classroom facilities with transportation increasingly provided by kid hacks and school buses. The oldest school in the USA is Collegiate School, founded 1628.
Indian schools follow the United Kingdom pattern, thus being divided into primary, secondary and high schools. Institutions imparting education before the student gets into graduation are generally classified as schools. The other way to classify schools in India would be government vs. public schools.
For more information on school, please visit Wikipedia.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The term college (Latin collegium) is most often used today to denote an educational institution. More broadly, it can be the name of any group of colleagues (see for example electoral college, College of Arms). Originally it meant a group of people living together under a common set of rules (con-, "together" + leg-, "law"); as a consequence members of colleges were originally styled "fellows" and still are in some places. The precise usage of the term varies among English-speaking countries.
1 United Kingdom
1.1 Universities and colleges
2 United States of America
2.1 Aspects of the U.S. system
2.2 The origin of the U.S. usage
3 British and American usage contrasted
4 The rest of the English-speaking world
4.4 Hong Kong
4.7 New Zealand
5 The non-English-speaking world
British usage of the word "college" remains the loosest, encompassing a range of institutions:
colleges of further education and adult education.
"sixth form colleges", where students (ages 16-18) finish their secondary education, and some specialist schools
the constituent parts of some universities (see below)
university colleges — independent higher education institutions that have been granted degree-awarding powers but not university status.
certain public schools for children such as Eton and Winchester
professional associations such as the Royal College of Organists, the Royal College of Surgeons and other various Royal Colleges.
the College of Justice or Court of Session of Scotland
In general use, a "college" refers to; institutions between secondary school and university, colleges of further education and adult education. Many types of institutions have "college" in its name but are not "colleges" in the general use of the word. For example Eton College would not be referred to as a college, but as a school or by its full name .
Universities and colleges
For notabable examples of the college system inside UK universities see Colleges within UK Universities
In relation to universities, the term college normally refers to a part of the university which does not have degree-awarding powers in itself. Degrees are always awarded by universities, colleges are institutions or organisations which prepare students for the degree. In some cases, colleges prepare students for the degree of a university of which the college is a part (eg colleges of the University of London, University of Cambridge, etc) and in some cases colleges are independent institutions which prepare students to sit as external candidates at other universities (eg many higher education colleges prepare students to sit for external examinations of universities). In the past, many of what are now universities with their own degree-awarding powers were colleges which had their degrees awarded by either a federal university (eg Cardiff University) or another university (eg many of the post-1992 universities).
United States of America
Boston CollegeBy contrast to British usage, in American English the term "college" is generally reserved for institutions of higher education, which are often totally independent and fully empowered to grant degrees. The usual practice in the United States today is to call an institution made up of several faculties and granting a range of higher degrees a "university" while a smaller institution only granting bachelor's or associate's degrees is called a "college". (See liberal arts colleges, community college). Nevertheless, a few of the USA's most prominent universities, such as Boston College, Dartmouth College, and College of William and Mary, have retained the term "college" in their names for historical reasons though they offer a wide range of higher degrees. This problem led, in part, to the threatened lawsuit between Yale College Wrexham (equivalent to an American "high school") and Yale University, the latter claiming trademark infringement.
Usage of the terms varies among the states, each of which operates its own institutions and licenses private ones. In 1996 for example, Georgia changed all of its four-year colleges to universities, and all of its vocational technology schools to technical colleges. (Previously, only the four research institutions were called universities.) Other states have changed the names of individual colleges, many having started as a teachers' college or vocational school (such as an A&M — an agricultural and mechanical school) that ended up as a full-fledged state university.
It should be noted, too, that "university" and "college" do not exhaust all possible titles for an American institution of higher education. Other options include "institute", "academy", "union," and "school" as in the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, United States Military Academy at West Point, New York, Cooper Union, or the Juilliard School.
The term college is also, as in Britain, used for a constituent semi-autonomous part of a larger university but generally organized on academic rather than residential lines. For example, at many institutions, the undergraduate portion of the university can be briefly referred to as the college (such as The College at Brown, Harvard College at Harvard, or Columbia College at Columbia) while at others each of the faculties may be called a "college" (the "college of engineering", the "college of nursing", and so forth). Some American universities, such as Princeton, Yale, and Rice do have residential colleges along the lines of Oxford or Cambridge, but the name was clearly adopted in homage to the British system. Unlike the Oxbridge colleges, these residential colleges are not autonomous legal entities nor are they typically much involved in education itself, being primarily concerned with room, board, and social life. At the University of California, San Diego, however, each of the six residential colleges does teach its own core writing courses and has its own distinctive set of graduation requirements.
Aspects of the U.S. system
Two features of the American system (but present in other systems also) are universality and breadth. Nearly half of all Americans attend at least one year of "college" and American universities award a great many degrees for professional training which might be accomplished on-the-job elsewhere. At the more academic end of the scale, on the other hand, many American college students (especially at the most elite institutions) see "college" as a time of intellectual exploration which can be accomplished free from any need to prepare for the future, believing graduate school to be the time for that. The American system, by permitting students to spend some of their time in classes entirely removed from their major field of study, forces much less specialization and focus than is common in the rest of the world. Furthermore, a great many students in American universities and colleges live either in institution-run dormitories or in neighborhoods dominated by student apartments. Hence the college years often involve a distinct kind of living arrangement between the family home and the first adult apartment.
The origin of the U.S. usage
The founders of the first institutions of higher education in the United States were graduates of Oxford and Cambridge. The small institutions they founded would not have seemed to them like universities — they were tiny and did not offer the higher degrees in medicine and theology. Furthermore, they were not composed of several small colleges. Instead, the new institutions felt like the Oxbridge colleges they were used to — small communities, housing and feeding their students who were instructed by residential tutors (see United Kingdom/Universities and Colleges above). However, when the first students came to be graduated, these "colleges" proceeded to assume (without any recognized authority) the right to confer degrees upon them. In Europe only universities could grant degrees. Presumably the leaders of Harvard College (which granted America's first degrees in 1642) thought of their college as the first of many residential colleges which would grow up into a New Cambridge university. However, over time, no new colleges were founded; and Harvard grew and added higher faculties. Eventually, it changed its title to university, but the term "college" had stuck and "colleges" had sprung up all over the United States.
British and American usage contrasted
The most confusing aspect of the conflict between the British and American terminology arises from the colloquial use of the word "college" by Americans. Where a British person would say "attend university", the American instead says "go to college", even when referring to an institution formally called a "university." In Britain, aside from usage in reference to collegiate universities as detailed above, to attend "college" would usually be accepted as meaning one attends a technical college or a specific sixth form institution. (Most state schools and Independent school in Britain have sixth forms, but there are a number of sixth form specific institutions). However, in the U.S., students at the enormous University of Michigan still call it their "college". Similarly, the institution that administers many standardized admissions tests in the U.S. is known as the College Board. To Americans, the word "college" refers not only to an institution but to the phase in one's life usually called "university" elsewhere in the world; more specifically, college refers to an undergraduate education in the United States, while university is a catch all phrase for various levels of study.
The rest of the English-speaking world
Influenced by their origins in the British Empire, and by modern American pop culture, the rest of the English-speaking world seems to have adopted a mix of their practices.
In Australia, the term "college" can refer to an institution of tertiary education that is smaller than a university, run independently or as part of a university. Following a reform in the 1980s many of the formerly independent colleges now belong to a larger university. Many private high schools that provide secondary education are called "colleges" in Australia. The term can also be used to refer to residence halls, as in the United Kingdom, but compared to the UK their tutorial programs are relatively small-scale and they do no actual teaching towards academic degrees (with the exception of one or two that host theological colleges).
Additionally, in Tasmania and the Australian Capital Territory, "college" refers to the final two years of high school (years eleven and twelve), and the institutions which provide this. In this context, "college" is a system independent of the other years of high school. (Here, the expression is a shorter version of matriculation college.) All college courses in the ACT are sanctioned by the Board of Senior Secondary Studies, or BSSS.
In Australia, "college" can also refer to the several dormitaries located at universities around the country. Examples are St John's College at the University of Sydney and Janet Clarke Hall at the University of Melbourne.
Trinity College main building in Toronto, Canada.In Canada, the term "college" usually refers to a community college or a technical, applied arts, or applied science school. These are post-secondary diploma-granting institutions, but they are not universities and typically do not grant degrees, except in British Columbia where some have university status. In Quebec, it can refer in particular to CEGEP (Collège d'enseignement général et professionnel, "college of general and professional education"), a form of post-secondary education specific to the Quebec education system that is required in order to continue onto university, or to learn a trade.
The "Royal Military College of Canada", a full-fledged degree-granting university, does not follow the naming convention used by the rest of the country.
The term "college" also applies to distinct entities within a university (usually referred to as "federated colleges" or "affiliated colleges"), akin to the residential colleges in the United Kingdom. These colleges act independently, but in affiliation or federation with the university that actually grants the degrees. For example, Trinity College was once an independent institution, but later became federated with the University of Toronto, and is now one of its residential colleges.
There are also universities referred to as art colleges, empowered to grant academic degrees of BFA, Bdes, MFA, Mdes and sometimes collaborative PhD degrees. Some of them have "university" in their name (University of Nova Scotia College of Art & Design) and others do not (Ontario College of Art & Design and Emily Carr Institute of Design).
It should be noted that, unlike in the United States, there is a strong distinction between "college" and "university" in Canada. In conversation, one specifically would say either "I'm going to university" (i.e., studying for a three- or four-year degree at a university) or "I'm going to college" (suggesting a technical or career college). Due to this distinction, the cultural phenomenon known as college radio in the United States is more properly called "campus radio" in Canada.
In Toronto, Ontario, many government-run secondary schools are called “collegiate institutes” (C.I.), a complicated form of the word “college” which avoids the usual “post-secondary” connotation. Some private secondary schools in Toronto choose to use the word “college” in their names nevertheless. Some high schools elsewhere in the country, particularly ones within the separate school system, may also use the word "college" or "collegiate" in their names.
Parliament Square, Trinity College, Dublin.See also: List of universities in the Republic of Ireland
In the Republic of Ireland, the term "college" is usually limited to an institution of tertiary education, but the term is quite generic within this field. University students often say they attend "college" rather than "university", with the term college being more popular in wider society. This is possibly due to the fact that, until 1989, no university provided teaching or research directly. Instead, these were offered by a constituent college of the university, in the case of the National University of Ireland and University of Dublin — or at least in strict legal terms. A limited number of secondary education institutions use the word college to describe or name themselves, but this tends to be the exception.
The state's only ancient university, the University of Dublin, is really English in its origins and, until recently, its outlook. Created during the reign of Elizabeth I, it is modeled on the universities of Cambridge and Oxford. However, only one constituent college was ever founded, hence the curious position of Trinity College, Dublin today. For a time, degrees in Dublin Institute of Technology were also conferred by the university. However, that institution now has its own degree awarding powers and is considering applying for full university status.
Among more modern foundations, the National University of Ireland, founded in 1908, consisted of constituent colleges and recognised colleges until 1997. The former are now referred to as constituent universities — institutions that are essentially universities in their own right. The National University can trace its existence back to 1850 and the creation of the Queen's University of Ireland and the creation of the Catholic University of Ireland in 1854. From 1880, the degree awarding roles of these two universities was taken over by the Royal University of Ireland, which remained until the creation of the National University in 1908 and the Queen's University of Belfast.
The state's two new universities Dublin City University and University of Limerick were initially National Institute for Higher Education institutions. These institutions offered university level academic degrees and research from the start of their existence and were awarded university status in 1989 in recognition of this. These two universities now follow the general trend of universities having associated colleges offering their degrees.
Third level technical education in the state has been carried out in the Regional Technical College network since 1970. These institutions are now referred to as Institutes of Technology, and some have delegated authority that entitles them to give degrees and diplomas in their own name. Initially these institutions offered only National Certificate and National Diploma courses. Now they also offer academic degrees at undergraduate and postgraduate level.
Other types of college include Colleges of Education. These are specialist institutions, often linked to a university, which provide both undergraduate and postgraduate academic degrees for people who want to train as teachers.
See also: Education in Hong Kong
In Hong Kong, the term "college" has a range of meanings, as in the British case. In the first case it can refer to a secondary school. It is also used by tertiary institutions as either part of their names, such as Shue Yan College; to refer to a constituent part of the university, such as the colleges in the collegiate Chinese University of Hong Kong; or to a residence hall of a university, such as St. John's College, University of Hong Kong.
See also: Universities and colleges in India, Indian Institute of Management, and Indian Statistical Institute
The term university is more common than college in India. Generally, colleges are located in different parts of a state and all of them are affiliated to a regional university. The colleges offer programmes under that university. Examinations are conducted by the university at the same time for all colleges under its affiliation. There are several hundred universities and each university has affiliated colleges.
The first liberal arts and sciences college in India was the Presidency College, Kolkata (estd. 1817) (initially known as Hindu College). The first Missionary institution to impart Western style education in India was the Scottish Church College, Calcutta (estd. 1830). The first modern university in India was the University of Calcutta (estd. January 1857). The first research institution for the study of the social sciences and ushering the spirit of Oriental research was the Asiatic Society, (estd. 1784). The first college for the study of Christian theology and ecumenical enquiry has been the Serampore College (estd. 1818).
The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are specialized institutions that award their own degrees. They are premier institutes in India. There are only seven of them at present.
Of late the government has been establishing Indian Institutes of Information Technology (IIITs) as specialized centres of excellence in the rapidly emerging field of Information Technology. They have been setup to educate professionals for the booming technology oriented market.
The term "college" in Singapore is generally only used for pre-university educational institutions called "Junior Colleges", which provide the final two years of secondary education (equivalent to sixth form in English terms or grades 11-12 in the American system). Since 1 January 2005, the term also refers to the three campuses of the Institute of Technical Education with the introduction of the "collegiate system", in which the three institutions are called ITE College East, ITE College Central, and ITE College West respectively.
The term "university" is used to describe higher-education institutions offering locally-conferred degrees. Institutions offering diplomas are called "polytechnics", while other institutions are often referred to as "institutes" and so forth.
The University of Otago.In New Zealand the word "college" normally refers to a newer secondary school for ages 13 to 17. In contrast, most older schools of the same type are "high schools". Also, single-sex schools are more likely to be "Someplace Boys/Girls High School", but there are also very many coeducational "high schools". There is no distinction between "high schools" and "colleges".
Some older schools are more collegiate in nature, however: Christ's College, Canterbury is still in theory organised as a body of fellows, and was a college of the Universities of New Zealand and Canterbury. Wellington College also enjoys its right to be named a College by virtue of its affiliation with the former University of New Zealand.
The constituent colleges of the former University of New Zealand (such as Canterbury University College) have become independent universities. Some halls of residence associated with New Zealand universities retain the name of "college", particularly at the University of Otago (which although brought under the umbrella of the University of New Zealand, already possessed university status and degree awarding powers). The institutions formerly known as "Teacher-training colleges" now style themselves "College of education".
Essentially the pattern of usage found in the United Kingdom is followed in New Zealand (refer: Royal Australasian College of Surgeons, R.A.C. of Physicians etc.).
The non-English-speaking world
Some languages beyond English use words similar to "college". (French, for example, has the Collège de France.) However, in other languages, confusion is most likely to arise when an American is reading something translated by someone using British conventions, or vice versa.
In Germany a Hochschule or Universität is an institute of tertiary education. "College" is a more proper term to use than a direct translation: Hochschule literally means "high school". German secondary education often takes place in an institution called in German an Oberschule, with its specific forms Hauptschule, Realschule, Gymnasium, and in some states also Gesamtschule, together with vocational secondary education in Berufsschule (in North Rhine-Westphalia called Berufskolleg). The term Kolleg (literally: college) is used in some states for institutions of adult education where graduates of a Berufsschule can graduate with an Abitur. A Graduiertenkolleg is a German Graduate school.
In Sweden the term "university college" is used as an official English translation for högskola, a term used for independent educational institutions providing tertiary, but not quaternary education. Similarly to the situation in Germany, the Swedish term högskola literally means "high school". The same term is also used for a number of institutions which function as specialized universities rather than as university colleges, providing quaternary education and conducting research (such as Kungliga Tekniska Högskolan, the Royal Institute of Technology).
In China, Japan, Korea and other East Asian nations, colleges and universities are collectively named ?? or in simplified writing ??, which is a word originally introduced by Confucius with his influential book of the same name. The original word and subsequently the book's title is most frequently translated to "The Great Learning". Today's pronunciation of this word is country- and sometimes region- specific and includes daxue and daigaku. In Japan, daigaku is usually considered distinct from senmon gakkou (????), which is more of a post-secondary vocational school. In China, the college students are selected through the annual National College Entrance Examination.
In Belgium, the term college is used for institutes of secondary education, more in particular for Catholic schools (official secondary schools are called atheneum). For tertiary education, the difference is made between hogeschool (which literally means high school) and university. With the current reform of higher education under the Bologna process, the hogeschool institutions now offer professional bachelor's degrees (three years study in one cycle) as well as professional master's degrees (one year study in addition to the professional bachelor's degree). Universities offer academic bachelor's degrees (three years study in one cycle) and academic master's degrees (one or two years study in addition to the academic bachelor's degree). Recent government measures have brought the hogeschool institutions to associate with an university in order to academize their curriculum and to get involved in applied research projects.
Courtyard of the Collège de France.In France, collège generally refers to a middle school or junior high school. However, it can also be used in a manner more similar to that of English, such as in the term electoral college or the Collège de France. The latter use, though, is not as common.
In Greece the term college is mainly used to refer to private secondary education institutions (high schools and junior high schools), while ?a?ep?st?µ?? (University) is the term utilized for Higher Education.
In Hungary the term "kollégium" refers to a dormitory that may or may not be independent from an educational institution; it can also refer to a university's autonomous student organisation, dedicated to the advanced study of a certain science, topic etc, for example the College for Social Theory.
In the Netherlands the term college is used for institutes of secondary education. The term college is also used for classes or lectures at university.
In Portugal the term college (colégio) is mainly used to refer to private secondary education institutions, while Universidade (University), Instituto or Escola Superior are the terms generally used for several kind of higher education institutions.
In some cantons of the French speaking part of Switzerland and also on the border to the Swiss German speaking part (i.e. in Fribourg) the French term “Collège” (German: Kollegium) is used for the Gymnasium (10th to 13th grade) which lends to the matura. It is also used as a name for the physical building in which obligatory education takes place (e.g., Le collège des coteaux).
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
A diploma (from Greek diploma) is a certificate or deed issued by an educational institution, such as a university, that testifies that the recipient has successfully completed a particular course of study, or confers an academic degree.
In some countries, such as the United Kingdom and Australia, such a document is called a testamur or testimonium, whilst in Ireland it is generally called a parchment.
As an academic award
In some countries, such as Australia, a diploma is a specific academic award of lower rank than an bachelor degree (and in some areas an Advanced Diploma falls in between as well). In Ireland a National Diploma is below the standard of the honours bachelor degree, whilst the Higher Diploma is taken after the bachelor degree.
In Germany the diploma (in German Diplom) is the standard academic degree, comparable with the Master's degree. In Hong Kong, higher diploma and associate degree are below the standard of the honours bachelor degree. Certificate (not to be confused with postgraduate certificate) and diploma are below the standard of higher diploma and associate degree. Postgraduate Certificates and Postgraduate Diplomas are taken after the bachelor degree, and are more vocational oriented than a master's degree.
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Look up degree in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
Degree may refer to:
Degree (angle), a unit of angle measurement
Degree (temperature), a unit of temperature measurement
Degree (symbol), a notation used in science, engineering and mathematics (°)
Degree of curvature, a unit of curvature measurement
Degrees of freedom (physics and chemistry)
Degree of a polynomial
Degree of a field extension
Degree (graph theory)
Degree (continuous map)
Degrees of freedom (statistics)
Degrees of freedom (engineering)
Academic degree, an academic award or title requiring a longer study period than a diploma
ad eundem degree
Degree (music), a particular note of a scale in relation to the tonic
In some jurisdictions, the severity of similar crimes — for example first degree murder
the intensity of a burn (from first degree to third degree)
the comparative degree and the superlative degree (good, better, best)
the level of kinship; see consanguinity
the Degree of inventiveness
the levels of advancement within certain organizations, such as Freemasonry and the Knights of Columbus
Degree (deodorant), a brand of antiperspirant
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For other uses, see Student (disambiguation).
Students attending a lecture at the Helsinki University of TechnologyThe word student is etymologically derived through Middle English from the Latin second-type conjugation verb "studere", meaning "to direct one's zeal at"; hence a student is one who directs zeal at a subject. A student is also known as a disciple in the sense of a religious area of study or in the sense of a "discipline" of learning. In its widest use, student is used to mean a school or class attendee. In many countries, the word student is reserved for higher education or university students; persons attending classes in primary or secondary schools are typically called pupils.
Currently, many children and teenagers are subject to compulsory education: by law they are required to attend some form of school. Laws vary from country to country, but most students are allowed to abandon their education when they reach the age specified in their jurisdiction.
Researchers, educators, and education administrators around the world are increasingly heeding student voice, a common reference to the experiences, opinions, ideas, and actions of children and youth in schools. This practice provides authenticity and efficacy for school improvement efforts.
17 November is International Students Day, which commemorates those students killed at the beginning of World War II who called for peace; specifically, the date was chosen as a memory to Jan Opletal and the events following his death.
This student is making a classroom presentation; the roles of teacher and student momentarily reversed.In the USA, where undergraduate degree courses and high school commonly last four years, the following terms are generally used, sometimes also adopted in other countries :
A freshman (common replacements: fresher, frosh, newbie, snotter, etc.) is a first-year student in college or university, or, chiefly in the United States, in high school. This word came from England but is now used far more frequently in U.S. English.
At universities in the United Kingdom the term fresher is used to describe new students. Unlike the American term freshman it sometimes only applies in the first few months or weeks of a student's first year. For the rest of the year they are called first years; the North American equivalent would be frosh (in singular and plural). The week before the start of a new year is called "Freshers' Week" at many universities, with a programme of special events to welcome new students.
The ancient Scottish University of St Andrews uses the terms bejant for a first year (from the French bec-jaune 'yellow beak', fledgling). Second years are called semi-bejants, third years are known as tertians and fourth years, or others in their final year of study, are called magistrands.
It should also be noted that freshmen are generally picked on more than other grade levels, in particular by the seniors. This is because the freshmen are usually younger than most students and they lack general knowledge of the school. In many traditions there is a remainder of the ancient (boarding, pre-commuting) tradition of fagging. He may also be subjected to a period of hazing as a pledge(r) or rookie, especially if joining a fraternity/sorority or certain other clubs, mainly athletic teams. For example, many US high schools have initiation methods for freshmen, including, but not limited to, Freshman Duct-taped Throw, Freshman races, Freshman Orientation, Freshman Freshening (referring to poor hygiene among freshmen), and the Freshman Spread.
Even after that, specific rules may apply depending on the school's traditions (e.g. wearing a distinctive beanie), non-observance of which can be punished, even by a paddle line.
In the US, a sophomore is a second-year student. Folk-Etymologically, the word is said to mean "wise fool"; consequently sophomoric means "pretentious, bombastic, inflated in style or manner; immature, crude, superficial" (according to the Oxford English Dictionary). While it appears to be formed from Greek sophos, meaning "wise", and moros meaning "foolish", it is in truth from the word sophumer, an obsolete variant of sophism . In Britain, the term sophomore is unknown and second year students are simply called second years.
The term middler is used to describe a third-year student of a school (generally college) which offers five years of study. In this situation, the fourth and fifth years would be referred to as "junior" and "senior" years, respectively.
A junior is a student in the penultimate (usually third) year of high school or college.
A senior is a student in the last (usually fourth) year at a high school, college, or university. A student taking more time than normal (usually four years) to graduate is sometimes referred to as a super senior.
The term pupil is used in English primary and secondary schools instead of student, but once attending higher education such as sixth-form college etc, the term student is standard.
The United States military academies use only numerical terms. In order from first year to fourth year, students in these institutions are officially referred to as fourth-class, third-class, second-class, and first-class cadets or midshipmen. Some universities also use numerical terms to identify classes; students enter as "first-years" and graduate as "fourth-years" (or, in some cases, "fifth-years", "sixth-years", etc).
Students are often stereotypically associated with childish pranks and japes.
Freshman and sophomore are sometimes used figuratively, mainly in US English usage, to refer for example to a first or second effort ("the singer's freshman album"), or to a politician's first or second term in office ("sophomore senator") or an athlete's first or second year on a professional sports team. Junior and senior aren't used in this figurative way to refer to third and fourth years or efforts, because of those words' broader meanings of 'younger' and 'older'. (A junior senator is therefore not one who is in his or her third term of office, but rather merely one who has not been in the Senate as long as the other senator from his or her state.)
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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
For university teachers, see professor.
A teacher's room in a Japanese middle school, 2005.
West Lynn Heights School Science Teacher Brian Hodge during Grade 11 Psychology class.In education, teachers are those who teach students or pupils, often a course of study, lesson plan, or a practical skill, including learning and thinking skills. There are many different ways to teach and help students learn. This is often referred to as the teacher's pedagogy. When deciding what teaching method to use, a teacher will need to consider students' background knowledge, environment, and their learning goals as well as standardized curriculum as determined by their school district. See education for more.
1 Related positions
1.1 Primary School Teachers
1.2 University teachers
1.3 Senior teachers
1.4 Emergency teachers
2 Qualification and registration
2.3 England and Wales
2.5 United States
3 World Teacher's Day
A teacher who registers a student, or who is positioned to help the student in a particular subject, is called a "tutor". A teacher or trainer from whom a student learns a great deal may be called a "mentor". (this term is used, in this context, in the UK.) An "educationalist" is an educational theorist, writer or researcher. In traditional China, the model teacher, Confucius, is greatly revered. A Chinese term for teacher is shifu, (sifu) or laoshi. Other terms are rabbi, guru, etc.
Primary School Teachers
Perhaps the most significant difference between primary and secondary teaching in the UK is the relationship between teachers and children. In primary schools each class has a teacher who stays with them for most of the week and will teach them the whole curriculum. In secondary schools they will be taught by different subject specialists each session during the week and may have up to 10 or more different teachers. The relationship between children and their teachers is tends to be closer in the primary school where they act as form tutor, specialist teacher and surrogate parent during the course of the day.
Teachers in college are called instructors or lecturers. In the United States, the term "professor" is usually applied to college or University teachers that have received tenure; although, there are rankings from Assistant Professor through Full Professor that may be defined differently at various institutions. The rank of American university instructors depends in part on the amount of relevant and publishable research completed over time.
An "assistant professor" is typically required to have completed incredibly extensive research seminars at the post-graduate level and have written and defended the dissertation. The Ph.D. is almost always required. Assistant professors are similar to lecturers or readers in the United Kingdom. Their initial preparation for the profession takes between eight and twelve years.
An "associate professor" must typically have completed five or more years of additional research, published articles in national and international journals, developed syllabi for the teaching of various courses, provided services to the University (i.e., committee member, faculty senate member, etc.), and in most cases have published refereed books.
The "full professor" in the United States would be the equivalent of the "Professor" in the United Kingdom and elsewhere. It is not typical to achieve the title of "full professor" within the first fifteen to twenty years as an educator and researcher at a university in the United States. It requires dedication to the discipline and eminent, original scholarship, as shown through published works and a diverse curriculum vitae.
In the United Kingdom the title 'Professor' is restricted to teachers that have been granted a 'chair'. Others are known as lecturers or readers.
Teachers who look after the whole school are called head teachers, school principals, headmasters or headmistresses. The equivalent in colleges and universities is called the dean, principal or vice-chancellor. Teachers of this status rarely teach students. A teacher in a grammar or public school in Britain may also be a Head of House. Houses were also used in secondary and comprehensive schools.
As with most large organisations a school needs a hierarchical structure of command, allowing matters to be delegated to a specific department or section of the school. In many cases there are deputy headteachers, heads of department (or subject, such as science or history) and heads of year. A head of year is in charge of the pastoral care of one year group.
Every school has a disciplinary procedure which dictates how punishments should be given to misbehaving students. One common method of coping with problems is the idea of escalation whereby the classroom teacher attempts to deal with the student(s) themselves before passing it on to a more senior teacher. Eventually, should the situation not be resolved, the headmaster becomes involved.
A teacher may be replaced by another teacher if they are absent due to an illness, death, or planned absence. In the United States and some parts of Canada, notably Alberta, replacement teachers are known as substitute teachers (or more informally as "subs") and more recently "guest teachers;" in Australia and New Zealand, they are known as casual teachers; in the UK and in other parts of Canada, notably Ontario, they are known as supply teachers. In British Columbia, Canada, they are called TOCs (teachers-on-call). Some jurisdictions, mostly individual school divisions or boards, use the term guest teacher. Temporary, substitute teachers in universities are usually in forms of multiple guest lecturers.
These teachers often find it difficult to acclimatise to the new environment, often moving from one school to another week after week or day after day. They are often viewed badly by the students they are looking after with a "you're not my real teacher" attitude making behaviour management very difficult. Meanwhile, especially in subjects like second languages, they may actually know less than their students. In long term replacements, however, this quickly subsides.
Teacher trade union groups have expressed resentment towards the continuous use of supply teachers (who may be paid a lower amount) to satisfy long-term shortages when school administrations have resisted creating a permanent teaching position.
The United States observes a Substitute Educator's Day, which was instituted by the National Education Association (NEA). The purpose of this day is to highlight the role and importance of the substitute teacher by providing information about, advocating for, and helping to increase appreciation and respect for this unique professional. This day also focuses on the needs of substitutes, which include better wages and health benefits and continual professional development. Substitute Educator's Day is observed on the Friday during American Education Week. Other countries and jurisdictions have similar observances.
Qualification and registration
Teachers are usually educated in a university or college. Often they must be certified by a government body before they can teach in a school.
Certification in Australia differs from state to state; however as a general rule all teachers must possess a tertiary certification - either a Bachelor of Education (BEd), Bachelor of Teaching (BTeach) or a graduate program after an appropriate Bachelor such as the Diploma of Education (DipEd) or Master of Teaching (MTeach) - awarded by an Australian certified University or an equivalent award from overseas plus experience in the classroom. Many states now have Teacher Registration Boards or are soon to institute them. These organisations are charged with certifying potential teacher's qualification and ensure constant Professional Development.
It is important to note that an Australian bachelor's degree is typically not seen as equivalent to a bachelor's degree in most countries, including the United States, which requires a broad and rigorous liberal arts and sciences general education component. Students take far less course work in the field of the major and this course work is less in-depth at higher levels of the course. Australians who would like to work outside of Australia, New Zealand, the UK and so on, should have their qualifications evaluated before attempting application in a foreign institution of education.
Canadian teachers must receive certification from a provincial College of Teachers or the provincial department responsible for teacher certification in order to be able to teach in elementary and secondary schools. In Manitoba, for example, the responsibility for teacher certification lies with the Department of Education, Citizenship, and Youth - Professional Certification and Records Branch. Teachers need a Bachelor's degree in Education (B.Ed.), often on top of another recognized Bachelor's degree. This adds one or two more years to a university education. To earn a degree in secondary education, teachers must have a certain number of university credits in their subject field. This number varies from province to province, and in some provinces it varies from school to school. Most employers of teachers require that successful applicants complete criminal record checks, as well as verification that an employee is not listed in the Child Abuse Registry. These same requirements are, in addition to being a sound part of the hiring practice, a requirement of most provincial education legislation. Other requirments such as a TB test, and level of experience criteria may also be required.
The process for certification is somewhat different in all provinces, but there is no process for obtaining "inter-provincial" certification. Any teacher must obtain certification from the specific province they wish to teach in. In extreme circumstances, such as a lack of any suitable certifiable candidates for a specific teaching position, an employer may apply for temporary certification of a non-certified person. This temporary certification is usually valid for one calendar year after ministry approval, but must be requested by the school, not by a non-certified applicant for a teaching position.
England and Wales
Main article: Qualified Teacher Status
In England and Wales teachers in the maintained sector must have gained Qualified Teacher Status (QTS). There are many paths in which a person can work towards gaining their QTS, the most popular of which is to have completed a first degree program (such as a BA or BSc) and then a Post-Graduate Certificate of Education (PGCE). Other methods include a specific teaching degree (BEd) or on-the-job training at a school. All qualified teachers in England must serve, after training, a statutory one year induction period that must be passed in order to remain a registered teacher. In Wales this period lasts for two years. During this period a teacher is known as an NQT (Newly Qualified Teacher). Schools are obliged to provide guidance, support and training to facilitate the NQT's success during this year. Local education authorities are also obliged to provide professional development opportunities.
Teachers in independent schools are not statutorily required to hold QTS, although independent schools increasingly prefer teachers to hold this qualification unless they have already gained significant teaching experience. The post-experience PGCE at the University of Buckingham is designed for independent school teachers. Some specialist independent schools, such as those following Montessori principles, require teachers trained in that specific educational philosophy.
The Teach First scheme, aimed at recent graduates, was introduced in 2003 in London and more recently in Manchester and it allows trainees to teach in schools without the Post-Graduate Certificate of Education (PGCE). After an intense period of training in the summer following graduation, trainees are placed in secondary schools. Following the successful completion of the first year, trainee teachers gain QTS status and may then continue teaching for a minimum of one year.
In Scotland teachers must hold a valid teaching qualification (TQ) and be registered with the General Teaching Council for Scotland. Following initial teacher education and gaining a teaching qualification a Scottish teacher is deemed to be provisionaly registered with the GTCS and must undergo a year of probation supported through the Scottish Executive's induction programme.
There are several possible to routes to a TQ, including a Bachelor of Education in Music, Physical Education or Technological Education for secondary school or a general BEd for primary school, a Professional Graduate Diploma in Education (PGDE) or a concurrent undergraduate degree combining a Bachelor of Science or Scottish Master of Arts with the initial teacher education elements of a PGDE. Concurrent degrees are only avaible from the University of Stirling.
A Scottish teacher may only qualify in a subject directly related to their undergraduate or graduate studies.
For teachers qualified outside of Scotland an application must be made to the GTCS for exceptional registration.
In the United States, each state determines the requirements for getting a license to teach. Typical requirements include a bachelor's degree with a major in a certifiable area (languages, arts, sciences, etc.) with rigorous pedagogical methods course work and practical field experiences as "student teachers." It is also required by all states that teachers pass standardised exams at the national and/or state levels both in the subjects they teach and the methods of teaching those subjects, and that they undergo constant evaluation by local, state, and sometimes even private organizations during their first years of teaching. Most states use graduated licensing programs (i.e., initial, Stage II, Rank I, professional, provisional, etc.). A license to teach in one state will usually facilitate the obtainment of a license in another state.
Until recently, a person could not teach unless he or she had completed a year or more of specific teaching training at a normal school. In the past two decades, normal school courses have been made optional through the promotion of Alternate Route teacher certification. New Jersey was the first state to establish an Alternate Route program, doing so in 1984. Since then, most states have established their own programs.
Teachers in New York State must have a Bachelor's degree and complete a Master's degree within five years. Additionally, to be permanently certified, teachers must pass three state exams on pedagogy, general knowledge and knowledge of a content area. In order to work in a public school a candidate must be fingerprinted.
The Bureau of Labor Statistics estimates that there are 1.4 million elementary school teachers, 600,000 middle school teachers, and 1 million secondary school teachers employed in the U.S.
US News has ranked Michigan State University as the #1 graduate program in teacher education for the last 11 years. Other prominent graduate schools of education include Stanford University, Harvard University, UC--Berkeley, UCLA, the University of Illinois--UC, the University of Indiana--Bloomington, Vanderbilt University, and the University of Michigan.
World Teacher's Day
UNESCO inaugurated World Teachers’ Day on 5 October 1994 to celebrate and commemorate the signing of the Recommendation Concerning the Status of Teachers on 5 October 1966. World Teachers’ Day also highlighted the Recommendation Concerning the Status of Higher Education Teaching Personnel adopted in 1997. Some countries such as Taiwan also celebrate Teacher's Day as a national holiday. In Brazil, it is celebrated on October 15.
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